To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection, the early identification of infants at risk for severe disease in order to potentially decrease morbidity could be considered a major goal. Current guidelines recommend only clinical observation for this purpose in infants without known comorbidities. However, recent evidence shows that the presence of pulmonary hypertension in this population is a relevant risk factor for the development of a severe illness, even in healthy infants. The determination of plasmatic NT-proBNP levels could help to identify those cases that benefit of echocardiographic screening to detect pulmonary hypertension in this population during hospitalization.
The neurocognitive trajectory in bipolar disorder (BD) is variable, with controversial findings, and most evidence come from cross-sectional studies. We aimed to examine the course of neurocognitive functioning in a sample of euthymic BD patients in comparison with a control group during a 5-year follow-up.
Ninety-nine euthymic bipolar patients and 40 healthy controls were assessed using a comprehensive neurocognitive battery (six neurocognitive domains) at baseline (T1) and then at 5-year follow-up (T2) in a longitudinal study.
No evidence of a progression in neurocognitive dysfunction was found either in cognitive composite index or in any of the neurocognitive domains for the whole cohort. However, there was a negative correlation between number of manic episodes and hospitalisations due to manic episodes and change in neurocognitive composite index (NCI) during the follow-up. Moreover, patients with higher number of manic and hypomanic episodes have a greater decrease in NCI, working memory and visual memory. History of psychotic symptoms was not related to the trajectory of neurocognitive impairment.
Our results suggest that, although the progression of cognitive decline is not a general rule in BD, BD patients who have a greater number of manic or hypomanic episodes may constitute a subgroup characterised by the progression of neurocognitive impairment. Prevention of manic and hypomanic episodes could have a positive impact on the trajectory of cognitive function.
Research carried out in different cultural contexts shows that the use of exclusively coercive disciplinary measures does not improve the behavior of those punished, and may even increase the risks underpinning those behaviors. The aim of this research was to study whether there is a link between repeatedly suffering punishment at school and psychosocial risks in adolescence. A non-experimental design was implemented with selected groups. The participants were 507 adolescents from four groups with different risk levels: in social protection (n = 189); subject to court measures (n = 104); in treatment for drug abuse (n = 25); and comparison group (n = 189). A questionnaire was applied collectively. The variables measured were school punishments, violence, drug consumption and commission of crimes. The mild punishments variable predicted and increased the probability of consuming alcohol, tobacco and cannabis by 34% (95% CI [1.1, 1.5]), and increased the probability of using illegal drugs by 11% (95% CI [1.11, 1.30]). Te severe punishments variable increased the probability of using illegal drugs by 86% (95% CI [1.41, 2.49]) and increased the probability of committing crimes by 40% (95% CI [1.13, 1.73]). School punishments, particularly if severe, stand as a visible indicator of psychosocial risk. Behaviors subjected to punishment should alert us to the need to intervene with individuals who manifest them for which the use of exclusively coercive measures is ineffective. A wider educational intervention is required to help them find their place in school instead of excluding them from it.
We present radiocarbon (14C) in tree rings from Mexico City and a reconstruction of fossil CO2 concentrations for the last five decades, as part of a research program to understand the 14C dynamics in this complex urban area. Background values were established by 14C concentrations in tree rings from a nearby clean area. Agreement between background and NH-zone 2 values indicate Taxodium mucronatum is a good biomonitor for annual atmospheric 14C variations. Values for the urban tree rings were significantly lower than background values, indicating a 14C depletion from fossil CO2 emissions. There is an increasing trend of fossil CO2 between 1960 and 1990, in agreement with the population growth and the increasing demand for fossil fuels in Mexico City. Between 1990 and 2000, there is an apparent decrease in fossil CO2 concentration, increasing again after 2000. The decrease in 2000, despite being of the same magnitude as the overall uncertainty, may reflect environmental policies that improved the energy efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions in the area. The increase in fossil CO2 concentration between 2000 and 2010 may be attributable to the significant growth of motor vehicle usage in Mexico City, which made transportation the main energy-demanding and -emitting sector.
Here we present a new site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain): Galería de las Estatuas (GE), which provides new information about Mousterian occupations in the Iberian Plateau. The GE was an ancient entrance to the cave system, which is currently closed and sealed by a stalagmitic crust, below which a detritic sedimentary sequence of more than 2 m is found. This has been divided into five litostratigraphic units with a rich assemblage of faunal and lithic remains of clear Mousterian affinity. Radiocarbon dates provide minimum ages and suggest occupations older than 45 14C ka BP. The palynological analysis detected a landscape change to increased tree coverage, which suggests that the sequence recorded a warming episode. The macromammal assemblage is composed of both ungulates (mainly red deer and equids) and carnivores. Taphonomic analysis reveals both anthropic, and to a lesser extent, carnivore activities. The GE was occupied by Neanderthals and also sporadically by carnivores. This new site broadens the information available regarding different human occupations at the Sierra de Atapuerca, which emphasizes the importance of this site-complex for understanding human evolution in Western Europe.
The paper begins by underlining the existence in Europe of two opposing views on the role that archaeology is to play: the Anglo-American conception and the Mediterranean one. The Spanish situation should be understood within the second, by analysing the legislative, economic, and social background of archaeological activity in the country and by stressing the determining role that the state plays. Next, reference is made to the development of archaeological enterprises created during the last decade, which coincides the recommendations made by the European Council. The general lack of participation by private sponsors in archaeological activities is discussed, followed by a reflection on the legal conditions of the commerce of archaeological goods and the role played by various kinds of institutions and private collectors in the encouragement of plunder. The conclusion stresses the relevance that institutions such as the EAA can have on safeguarding the European archaeological heritage - bearing in mind a respectful attitude towards the different national feelings - by their contribution towards increased integration.
This paper examines the effect of corporate governance mechanisms on companies’ decision to assure their sustainability reports and their choice of assurance provider in countries with a greater stakeholder orientation. The corporate governance factors analyzed are related to the strength of the board’s monitoring function, which is determined by the size, independence and activity of the sustainability committee. The international sample consists of 610 companies operating in countries that are more stakeholder oriented from the period 2007–2014. We propose alternative logit models of analysis using the random effects estimator. Consistently with our propositions, our results provide evidence that a firm’s sustainability assurance and its choice of the accounting profession are positively associated with board independence and the activity of the sustainability committee. In addition, the empirical evidence obtained shows a U-shaped relationship between the board size and assurance issues.
The radiocarbon variation for northwestern Mexico during the period 1950–2004 was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) analyses of tree rings. Two tree-ring sequences of Pseudotsuga menziesii, sampled in a site isolated from urban centers and active volcanoes (26.18°N, 106.3°W, 3000 m asl), were dendrochronologically dated and separated in annual rings prior to 14C analysis. Results obtained show a similar profile to the values reported for the Northern Hemisphere (NH), having significant correlation coefficients with the compilation curves for NH zone 2 (r = 0.987, p < 0.001) and NH zone 3 (r = 0.993, p < 0.001). The maximum peak is centered at 1964.5 with a δ14C value of 713.15 ± 9.3‰. The values obtained for the period 1958–1965 are lower than zone 2 values and higher than zone 3 values. For the period 1975–2004, the values obtained are higher than the NH compilation curve and other NH records. We attribute the first divergence to the North American monsoon that may have carried 14C-depleted air from the south during the summer months; the second divergence may be attributable to 14C-enriched biospheric CO2.
In September 2005, an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system based on a 1MV Tandetron accelerator arrived at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA). One of the main research programs for this AMS facility is based on radiocarbon. At the same time as the AMS facility was installed and tested, the 14C sample preparation laboratory was designed and set up. A graphitization line that allows the preparation of 5 samples in parallel was designed and built in October 2006. The first months were mainly dedicated to check and optimize all the sample processing. For such a task, several reference samples have been prepared and measured. Since the beginning of 2007, the laboratory has been fully operational and is currently performing as a service for the scientific community. During 2007, nearly 100 unknown samples were prepared and measured in our AMS system. Most of them were for dating purposes, but also other applications were investigated. The performance of the 14C laboratory and dating service will be shown, with some examples as illustration.
The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) produces a complex mixture of gases and aerosols from diverse sources, including burning of fossil fuels, biomass, and wastes, with a significant biogenic contribution. We present the first results of ongoing projects to study temporal and spatial variations of 14CO2 in the area. Temporal variations reconstructed from tree rings of Taxodium mucronatum indicate a considerable radiocarbon depletion, in accordance to the vast amount of fossil fuels burnt inside Mexico Valley, with values between 62 and 246‰ lower than background values for the 1962–1968 period, and lower by 51–88‰ for the 1983–2010 period. The lower dilution found for the last decades might indicate an increase in enriched 14CO2 sources. Results from the spatial distribution, as revealed from integrated CO2 samples and grasses from six points within the MCMA collected during the 2013 dry season, show variations between sites and sample types. For integrated CO2 samples, values range from 35.6‰ to 54.0‰, and for grasses between −86.8‰ and 40.7‰. For three of the sampling points, the grasses are significantly depleted, by up to ∼133‰, as compared to the corresponding integrated CO2 sample. This may result from differences in the carbon assimilation period and exposure to different CO2 sources. Higher-than-background Δ14C values were found for all integrated CO2 samples, presumably resulting from 14C-enriched CO2 derived from forest fires in the mountains during the sampling period. Results obtained so far confirm the complexity of the 14C cycle in the MCMA.
The ommastrephid squid, Illex coindetii, is one of the most abundant cephalopods in the Mediterranean Sea and an important predator in the ecosystem. In the present study, we examined the diet habits of I. coindetii in the north-western Mediterranean Sea by combining two complementary approaches: stomach content and stable isotopic analyses. Specifically, we examined whether the diet differed between sizes and seasons. Stomach content results indicated that the diet of I. coindetii was composed of 35 prey items including four major groups; namely the crustaceans Pasiphaea sivado, Amphipods, squid of the Order Teuthida, and pelagic and mesopelagic fish. Differences were found among different ontogenetic sizes: juvenile individuals fed mainly on crustaceans (%IRI = 77.59), whereas adult individuals fed on a wider range of prey items, including the shrimp P. sivado (%IRI = 33.21), the amphipod Anchylomera blossevillei (%IRI = 0.91), the decapod Plesionika sp. (%IRI = 0.19), the carangid Trachurus trachurus (%IRI = 0.34) and some Myctophids species (%IRI = 0.21). Differences were also found between seasons in the year. In winter, crustaceans were the main prey items, whereas in summer the diversity of prey was higher, including fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Similar to the stomach contents, stable isotopic results indicated differences among sizes. δ15N values were higher in adult squids than in juveniles because they fed on prey at higher trophic levels. In conclusion, this study indicates that feeding habits of I. coindetii vary seasonally and ontogenetically. These feeding variations may be associated with trophic competence scenarios based on size, and also with the availability and abundance of prey throughout the year.
Emotional states, attitudes and intentions are often conveyed by modulations in the tone of voice. Impaired recognition of emotions from a tone of voice (receptive prosody) has been described as characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the ability to express non-verbal information in speech (expressive prosody) has been understudied. This paper describes a useful technique for quantifying the degree of expressive prosody deficits in schizophrenia, using a semi-automatic method, and evaluates this method’s ability to discriminate between patient and control groups. Forty-five medicated patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were matched with thirty-five healthy comparison subjects. Production of expressive prosodic speech was analyzed using variation in fundamental frequency (F0) measures on an emotionally neutral reading task. Results revealed that patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly more pauses (p < .001), were slower (p < .001), and showed less pitch variability in speech (p < .05) and fewer variations in syllable timing (p < .001) than control subjects. These features have been associated with «flat» speech prosody. Signal processing algorithms applied to speech were shown to be capable of discriminating between patients and controls with an accuracy of 93.8%. These speech parameters may have a diagnostic and prognosis value and therefore could be used as a dependent measure in clinical trials.
Although dating violence takes place within the context of a couple, there are few studies exploring how the prevalence data change when violence is reported by one partner or both, and to what extent partners agree about the existence of violence. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze and compare the reports about the prevalence of violence obtained from participants and their partners, together with interpartner agreement concerning victimization and perpetration of threats, physical, verbal-emotional and sexual violence. A total of 105 young heterosexual couples answered a questionnaire about victimization and the perpetration of violence in their relationship during the previous year. The results indicated that prevalence rates varied, depending on who reported the violence -the man, the woman or the couple- perhaps because interpartner agreement was low, except for the occurrence of verbal-emotional violence and the absence of physical violence. These findings suggest the need to develop more systematic research, especially through the use of reports from both members of the couple.
Lobarina scrobiculata (better known as Lobaria scrobiculata) is a widespread lichen, threatened and Red-Listed in various European countries. Microsatellite markers for the mycobiont of L. scrobiculata were developed in order to investigate its genetic diversity in the Iberian Peninsula and Europe and to design effective conservation strategies. A total of 7 polymorphic markers were isolated and characterized. These microsatellites were tested in natural populations found in the Iberian Peninsula. The number of observed alleles ranged from 3 to 8, and the Nei's unbiased gene diversity from 0·26 to 0·59. These microsatellite markers are the first to be developed for L. scrobiculata and they will be useful for population studies and for the assessment of the conservation status of this species.
On 19 April 2010, representatives of the Spanish federation of people affected by polio and its late effects (FEAPET) met with political leaders of the Spanish social security. The meeting provided an opportunity to discuss Article I of Royal Decree 1851/2009. This changed eligibility for early retirement in cases of disability in a way that disadvantaged some polio survivors. It was agreed to look into the possibility of retrospective reviews of cases where assessments had previously been inadequate (in the sense that no account was taken of the distal axonal regeneration of the motor neuron and neuronal loss due to the aging process of a damaged motor unit). To properly understand this issue, and the attention it has recently received in the Spanish media, we need to turn to historical analysis of polio in Spain and its social and cultural meaning in the context of both the history of childhood and disability studies. Health, disease and childcare provide paradigmatic case studies in modern history. The history of childhood in particular reveals the strategic character of health in the modern industrial world. Indeed, medical care of children is one of the elements defining the status of children in the contemporary period.
A study of poliomyelitis (polio), as it affected Spanish society, allows us to analyse a set of interesting problems for a better appreciation of the social, cultural and medical perspectives on children and youth in the twentieth century.
Several studies using different animal models have demonstrated that the consumption of soya protein (SP) reduces serum cholesterol concentrations by increasing the excretion of bile acids (BA). However, the mechanism by which SP enhances BA excretion is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of SP regulates the expression of key enzymes involved in hepatic BA synthesis and the transporters involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) via fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) and/or small heterodimer protein (SHP) in rats. To achieve this aim, four groups of rats were fed experimental diets containing 20 % casein (C) or SP with or without the addition of 0·2 % cholesterol and the expression of hepatic genes involved in BA synthesis and the ileal and hepatic RCT was measured. Rats fed the SP diet had higher concentrations of ileal FGF15 and hepatic FGF15 receptor (FGFR4) and increased expression of SHP and liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1) than those fed the C diet; as a result, the excretion of faecal BA was greater. The addition of cholesterol to the diet repressed the protein abundance of FGF15 and FGFR4; however, SP increased the expression of SHP and LRH1 to a lesser extent. Nonetheless, the expression of ABCG5/8 was increased in the intestine of rats fed the SP diet, and the effect was enhanced by the addition of cholesterol to the diet. In conclusion, SP in the presence of cholesterol increases BA synthesis via the repressions of FGF15 and SHP and accelerates BA excretion to prevent cholesterol overload in the enterocytes by increasing RCT.
The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and personality patterns in the general population, taking into account the possible influence of nicotine dependence. We used a stratified random sample of 1,081 adults from the general population (519 smokers and 562 non-smokers) in the region of Galicia (Spain). Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). The results indicated that nicotine-dependent smokers had a higher probability of obtaining a PREV > 75 in the histrionic and antisocial personality patterns and non-nicotine-dependent smokers are more likely to present a PREV > 75 in paranoid personality pattern than non-smokers. On the contrary, non-smokers are more likely to have a PREV > 75 on the compulsive personality scale. Our findings suggest that there are different personality patterns according to smoking status (smoker/non-smoker) and according to the presence of nicotine dependence. We concluded that it is necessary to identify the personality characteristics of smokers, since these characteristics could be key variables in increased risk of being a smoker and of difficulties for quitting smoking.