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Although hepcidin synthesis is stimulated by inflammation and inhibited by iron deficiency, the strength of their opposing effects on serum hepcidin in humans remain unclear. It was recently shown that an inflammatory stimulus in anemic women did not increase serum hepcidin or decrease iron absorption. The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid on iron absorption may not be effective during inflammation, because of increased serum hepcidin. Our study aim was to test whether reducing inflammation in iron-depleted overweight women with low-grade inflammation would lower serum hepcidin and improve iron absorption with and without ascorbic acid, compared to normal-weight women without inflammation. Before and after 14d of anti-inflammatory treatment (3x600mg ibuprofen daily) in overweight and normal-weight women (n=36; age 19-46 y), we measured serum hepcidin and fractional iron absorption (erythrocyte iron incorporation) from 57Fe- and 58Fe-labeled test meals with and without ascorbic acid. There were significant group effects on interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin, and SHep (for all, p<0.05). There was a significant treatment effect on SHep (p<0.05): in overweight women, treatment decreased IL-6 by ≍30% and SHep by ≍45%. However, there were no significant treatment or group effects on FIA. Body iron stores were a significant positive predictor of SHep before and after treatment (p<0.001), but IL-6 was not. Reducing chronic inflammation in overweight women halved SHep but did not affect iron absorption with or without ascorbic acid, and the main predictor of iron absorption was body iron stores.
Older subjects are susceptible to develop gambling problems, and researchers have attempted to assess the mechanisms underlying the gambling profile in later life. The objective of this study was to identify the main stressful life events (SLE) across the lifespan which have discriminative capacity for detecting the presence of gambling disorder (GD) in older adults. Data from two independent samples of individuals aged 50+ were analysed: N = 47 patients seeking treatment at a Pathological Gambling Outpatient Unit and N = 361 participants recruited from the general population. Sexual problems (p < 0.001), exposure to domestic violent behaviour (p < 0.001), severe financial problems (p = 0.002), alcohol or drug-related problems (p = 0.004) and extramarital sex (p < 0.001) were related to a higher risk of GD, while getting married (p = 0.005), moving to a new home (p = 0.003) and moving to a new city (p = 0.006) decreased the likelihood of disordered gambling. The accumulated number of SLE was not a predictor of the presence of GD (p = 0.732), but patients who met clinical criteria for GD reported higher concurrence of SLE in time than control individuals (p < 0.001). Empirical research highlights the need to include older age groups in evidence-based policies for gambling prevention, because these individuals are at high risk of onset and/or progression of behavioural addiction-related problems such as GD. The results of this study may be useful for developing reliable screening/diagnostic tools and for planning effective early intervention programmes aimed to reduce the harm related to the onset and evolution of problem gambling in older adults.
The WHO and UNICEF recommend home visits to improve health outcomes for mothers and newborns. We evaluated the effect of home visits by community volunteers during pregnancy and postpartum on breast-feeding practices, women’s knowledge about benefits, beliefs and myths of breast-feeding, obstetric and neonatal warning signs, preparation for childbirth and initial care for newborns, and diarrhoea and respiratory diseases in children.
Community quasi-experimental design. We estimated difference-in-difference models with fixed effects at the community level weighted by propensity score and investigated implementation barriers through focus groups and semi-structured interviews.
Poor rural communities in Mexico; 48 intervention and 29 control.
Baseline and follow-up information were reported from two independent cross-sectional samples of women with babies aged between 6 and 18 months (baseline: 292 control, 320 intervention; follow-up: 292 control, 294 intervention).
The intervention increased reports of exclusive breast-feeding in the first 6 months by 24·4 percentage points (pp) (95 % CI: 13·4, 35·4), mothers’ knowledge of obstetric warning signs by 23·4 pp (95 % CI: 9·2, 37·5) and neonatal warning signs by 26·2 pp (95 % CI: 15·2, 37·2) compared to the control group. A non-linear dose–response relation with the number of home visits was found. Diarrhoea and respiratory diseases among children decreased in the intervention v. control group but were not statistically significant.
Home visits should be implemented as a complementary strategy to the provision of prenatal and postnatal care in rural communities due to their potential positive effects on the health of mothers and their children.
Pelagic seabird populations have declined strongly worldwide. In the North Atlantic there was a huge reduction in seabird populations following the European colonization of the Azores, Madeira and Canary archipelagos but information on seabird status and distribution for the subtropical region of Cabo Verde is scarce, unavailable or dispersed in grey literature. We compiled and compared the historical and current distribution of all seabird species breeding in the Cabo Verde archipelago, updated their relative abundance, investigated their inland habitat preferences, and reviewed their threats. Currently, the breeding seabird community in Cabo Verde is composed of Bulwer’s Petrel Bulweria bulwerii, White-faced Storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina aedesorum, Cape Verde Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Storm-petrel Hydrobates jabejabe, Cape Verde Petrel Pterodroma feae, Boyd's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri boydi, Brown Booby Sula leucogaster, and Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus. One breeding species is currently extinct, the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens. The relative abundance of Cape Verde Shearwater, Boyd’s Shearwater, Cape Verde Petrel, and Cape Verde Storm-petrel was determined from counts of their nocturnal calls in Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, Branco, Raso and São Nicolau. Cape Verde Petrel occurred only on mountainous islands (Santo Antão, São Nicolau, Santiago, and Fogo) from mid-to high elevations. Larger species such as the Cape Verde Shearwater and Boyd’s Shearwater exhibited a wider distribution in the archipelago, occurring close to the coastline but at lower densities on populated islands. Small procellariforms such as the Cape Verde Storm-petrel occurred at high densities only on rat-free islets and in steep areas of main islands where introduced cats and rats are unlikely to occur. The main threats to seabird populations in Cabo Verde range from predation by introduced predators, habitat alteration or destruction, and some residual human persecution.
One of the main health-related worries for older adults is becoming dependent. Even healthy older adults may worry about becoming dependent, generating guilt feelings due to the anticipation of future needs that others must solve. The guilt associated with self-perception as a burden has not been studied in older adults, and there is no instrument available to measure these feelings.
To adapt the Self-Perceived Burden Scale (SPBS; Cousineau et al., 2003) for the assessment of feelings of guilt for perceiving oneself as a burden for the family in older adults without explicit functional or cognitive impairment.
Participants were 298 older adults living independently in the community. Participants completed the assessment protocol, which included measures of guilt associated with self-perception as a burden, depressive and anxious symptomatology, self-perceived burden, and sociodemographic information.
Results from exploratory, parallel and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the scale, named Guilt associated with Self-Perception as a Burden Scale (G-SPBS), has a unidimensional structure, explaining 57.04% of the variance of guilt. Good reliability was found (Cronbach’s alpha = .94). The results revealed significant (p < .01) positive associations with depressive and anxious symptomatology.
These findings suggest that the G-SPBS shows good psychometric properties which endorse its use with healthy community older adults. Also, guilt associated with perceiving oneself as a burden seems to be a relevant variable that can contribute to improving our understanding of psychological distress in older adults.
The objective was to evaluate maternal Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern adherence during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth. A secondary objective of the current study was to describe the sociodemographic, lifestyle and obstetric profile of the mothers studied as well as the most relevant paternal and newborn characteristics.
The current study is a two-phase retrospective population-based study of maternal dietary habits during pregnancy and their effect on newborn size and prematurity. The descriptive first phase examined maternal dietary habits during pregnancy along with the maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and obstetric profile in a cross-sectional period study. In the second phase, newborn outcomes were evaluated in a nested case–control study. Adherence to MD during pregnancy was measured with the Spanish version of Kidmed index.
Obstetrics ward of the La Fe Hospital in Valencia.
All mother–child pairs admitted after delivery during a 12-month period starting from January 2018 were assessed for eligibility. A total of 1118 provided complete outcome data after signing informed consent.
14·5 % met the criteria of poor adherence (PA); 34·8 %, medium adherence (MA); and 50·7 %, optimal adherence (OA). Medium adherence to MD was associated in the adjusted scenarios with a higher risk of giving birth to a preterm newborn. No association was found between MD adherence and SGA.
Early intervention programmes geared towards pregnant women, where women were aided in reaching OA to MD, might reduce the risk of preterm newborn.
Fyn tyrosine kinase is a member of the Scr family that phosphorylates the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptors reducing the inhibitory effects of ethanol and therefore may regulate the individual sensitivity to ethanol.
To investigate whether there is any relationship between the polymorphism at position −93 of the Fyn kinase gene and the susceptibility to develop alcoholism.
We studied the distribution of genotypes and alleles of the polymorphism −93A/G (137346 T/C) in the 5′ UTR region of the fyn gene in 207 male heavy drinkers (119 with alcohol dependence and 88 with alcohol abuse) and 100 control subjects from Castilla y León (Spain).
The frequency of G allele carriers was higher in alcohol dependents than in alcohol abusers (47.9% vs 30.6%; p = 0.015; OR = 2.077; 95% CI 1.165–3.704).
Our results show that the −93G allele of Fyn kinase gene is associated with higher risk to develop alcohol dependence in Spanish men.
Little information exists on how to garner political commitment to strengthen large-scale breastfeeding policies and programmes by targeting key decision makers. The present study aims to map and describe the influence of stakeholders involved in breastfeeding policy and programming and identify opportunities to strengthen the breastfeeding-friendly environment in Mexico. A total of nine key informants from seventeen stakeholder organisations were selected based on their in-depth knowledge of the breastfeeding environment in Mexico and were individually interviewed using Net-Map methodology. This participatory interview technique combines stakeholder mapping, social network analysis and influence mapping to identify relevant stakeholders. Participants identified a total of fifty-five stakeholders shaping breastfeeding programmes and policies through four domains of influence: commands (n 32 stakeholders), dissemination (n 40), funding (n 35) and technical assistance (n 37). The Federal Ministry of Health emerged as the most influential stakeholder of breastfeeding policy and programming decisions in Mexico among all domains of influence. The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit as well as the National Institute of Public Health were identified as additional key stakeholders providing funding and technical assistance to the Federal Ministry of Health, respectively. Engaging identified key stakeholders can generate a multisectoral commitment to breastfeeding and strengthen the breastfeeding-friendly environment in Mexico.
Genetic data on threatened plant populations can facilitate the development of adequate conservation strategies to reduce extinction risk. Such data are particularly important for species affected by habitat fragmentation such as Magnolia cubensis subsp. acunae, a Critically Endangered magnolia subspecies endemic to Cuba. Using genetic data from 67 individuals, we aimed to evaluate the effect of habitat fragmentation on two subpopulations in the Guamuhaya mountain range, in Topes de Collantes Protected Natural Landscape and Lomas de Banao Ecological Reserve. We characterize the structure and genetic diversity of these subpopulations, with the objective of managing their conservation more effectively. We used Landsat satellite images to determine land-cover types at the two locations and calculated indices of habitat fragmentation. For genetic analyses, we extracted DNA from the leaf tissue of individuals from the two subpopulations and used 11 microsatellite markers to genotype them. We calculated heterozygosity, allelic richness and the F-statistics, to evaluate genetic variability. The montane rainforest in Topes de Collantes was most affected by habitat fragmentation, with smaller patches of more irregular shapes, compared to submontane forest at this location and both montane and submontane forests in Lomas de Banao. Genetic diversity was higher in Topes de Collantes, but we found no genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Our findings suggest the two subpopulations can be considered a single evolutionary unit and conservation entity. We propose to use individuals from both subpopulations for reinforcement to increase the overall genetic diversity of the subspecies.
Some recent researches have shown the important role of hair cortisol as a retrospective biomarker of chronic stress. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between hair cortisol levels and sociodemographic and psychological variables, such as perceived stress levels and psychopathological symptoms on a Spanish population. The sample consisted of 347 healthy people, 230 women and 117 men, with an average age of 33.39 years (SD = 12.63). Hair cortisol levels were measured by obtaining a hair sample. In addition, a psychological assessment composed by: Analogic-Visual Stress Scale, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL–90–R) and the assessment of vital stressful events suffered, was carried out. The mean cortisol level was 108.93 pg/mg (SD = 66.43) in men, and 120.38 pg/mg (SD = 87.26) in women. The linear hierarchical regression showed that Analogic-Visual Stress Scale and perceived stress levels were related with higher hair cortisol levels (R2 = .032; t = 2.21; p = .029). Due to the relationship between daily stress levels, Analogic-Visual Stress Scale, anxiety sub-scale of SCL 90–R and perceived stress levels with hair cortisol levels, we conclude that there is a relation between perceived yourself stressed and the physiological levels.
Psychosocial stressors deriving from socioeconomic disadvantages in adolescents can result in higher metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. We aimed to examine whether socioeconomic disadvantages were associated with MetS independent of lifestyle and whether there was a dose response relationship between the number of cumulated socioeconomic disadvantages and the risk of MetS.
Materials and Methods:
The present study included 1,037 European adolescents (aged 12.5–17.5) of the 3,528 total HELENA participants. Sociodemographic variables and lifestyle were assessed through self-reported questionnaires. Disadvantaged groups included adolescents with low educated parents, low family affluence, migrant origin, unemployed parents, and from non-traditional families. MetS score was calculated as the sum of sex- and age-specific z-scores of waist circumference, HOMA-IR index, mean of z-scores of diastolic and systolic blood pressure and mean of z-score of HDL-C multiplied by -1 and z-score of TG. A higher score indicates poor metabolic health. Linear mixed-effects models were used to study the association between social disadvantages and MetS risk score. Models were adjusted for sex, age, pubertal status (Tanner stage) and lifestyle (diet quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking status).
Adolescents with low educated mothers showed a higher MetS score (0.54 [0.09–0.98]; β [99% confidence interval]) compared to high-educated mothers. Adolescents who accumulated more than three disadvantages (0.69 [0.08–1.31]) or with missing information on disadvantages (0.72 [0.04–1.40]) had a higher MetS risk compared to non-socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Stronger associations between socioeconomic disadvantages and MetS were found in male in comparison with female adolescents.
Out of the studied socioeconomic disadvantages, maternal education is the most important determinant of adolescent's MetS risk independently of sex, age, Tanner stage, smoking status, alcohol consumption, diet quality and physical activity. Social vulnerabilities (migrant background, unemployment status and belonging to a non-traditional family) were not associated with a higher MetS risk in European adolescents. However, we found a dose-response relationship between the number of factors related to social disadvantage and adolescents’ MetS risk with adolescents accumulating three or more socioeconomic disadvantages showing the highest risk. Stronger associations between socioeconomic disadvantages and MetS were found in male compared to female adolescents. Policy makers should focus on low educated families to tackle health disparities.
In Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection, the early identification of infants at risk for severe disease in order to potentially decrease morbidity could be considered a major goal. Current guidelines recommend only clinical observation for this purpose in infants without known comorbidities. However, recent evidence shows that the presence of pulmonary hypertension in this population is a relevant risk factor for the development of a severe illness, even in healthy infants. The determination of plasmatic NT-proBNP levels could help to identify those cases that benefit of echocardiographic screening to detect pulmonary hypertension in this population during hospitalization.
A plethora of sensors and information technologies with applications to the precision nutrition of herbivores have been developed and continue to be developed. The nutritional processes start outside of the animal body with the available feed (quantity and quality) and continue inside it once the feed is consumed, degraded in the gastrointestinal tract and metabolised by organs and tissues. Finally, some nutrients are wasted via urination, defecation and gaseous emissions through breathing and belching whereas remaining nutrients ensure maintenance and production. Nowadays, several processes can be monitored in real-time using new technologies, but although these provide valuable data ‘as is’, further gains could be obtained using this information as inputs to nutrition simulation models to predict unmeasurable variables in real-time and to forecast outcomes of interest. Data provided by sensors can create synergies with simulation models and this approach has the potential to expand current applications. In addition, data provided by sensors could be used with advanced analytical techniques such as data fusion, optimisation techniques and machine learning to improve their value for applications in precision animal nutrition. The present paper reviews technologies that can monitor different nutritional processes relevant to animal production, profitability, environmental management and welfare. We discussed the model-data fusion approach in which data provided by sensor technologies can be used as input of nutrition simulation models in near-real time to produce more accurate, certain and timely predictions. We also discuss some examples that have taken this model-data fusion approach to complement the capabilities of both models and sensor data, and provided examples such as predicting feed intake and methane emissions. Challenges with automatising the nutritional management of individual animals include monitoring and predicting of the flow of nutrients including nutrient intake, quantity and composition of body growth and milk production, gestation, maintenance and physical activities at the individual animal level. We concluded that the livestock industries are already seeing benefits from the development of sensor and information technologies, and this benefit is expected to grow exponentially soon with the integration of nutrition simulation models and techniques for big data analysis. However, this approach may need re-evaluating or performing new empirical research in both fields of animal nutrition and simulation modelling to accommodate a new type of data provided by the sensor technologies.
To assess the daily intake of polychlorinated biphenyls not similar to dioxins (NDL-PCB) derived from fish consumption in Spain and compare it with tolerance limits in order to establish a safe threshold so that the nutritional benefits derived from fish consumption may be optimized.
Analysis of NDL-PCB in fish samples and ecological study of the estimated intake of NDL-PCB from fish consumption in different Spanish population groups.
National representative sample of the Spanish population.
The intake of NDL-PCB was estimated in two different scenarios: upper bound (UB) and lower bound (LB). Estimating intake using the average concentration of NDL-PCB found in the fish samples, the intake for ‘other children’ is estimated as: 1·80 (UB) and 5·33 (LB) ng/kg per d at the 50th percentile (P50); 7·39 (UB) and 21·94 (LB) ng/kg per d at the 95th percentile (P95) of fish consumption. Estimated NDL-PCB intake shoots up in the toddler group, reaching values of 30·43 (UB) and 90·37 (LB) ng/kg per d at P95. Estimated intake values are lower than those previously estimated in Europe, something expected since in previous studies intake was estimated through total diet. In adults, our estimated values are 1·59 (UB) and 4·72 (LB) ng/kg per d at P50; 4·95 (UB) and 14·72 (LB) ng/kg per d at P95.
NDL-PCB concentration in fish is under the tolerance limits in most samples. However, daily intake in consumers of large quantities of fish should be monitored and special attention should be given to the youngest age groups due to their special vulnerability and higher exposure.
Pallid breath-holding spells are common and dramatic forms of recurrent syncope in infancy. They are very stressful despite their harmless nature and sometimes require treatment.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of belladonna in severe breath-holding spells.
This is a multicentric, retrospective series involving 84 children with severe pallid breath-holding spells. Inclusion criteria were >1 pallid breath-holding spell with loss of consciousness, paediatric cardiology evaluation, and follow-up >6 months. In total, 45 patients received belladonna and 39 patients did not receive treatment, according to physician preference.
Mean age was 11 months, ranging from 4 to 18 months, with 54% of males. Mean spell duration was 30 seconds (interquartile range 15, 60), and the frequency was four episodes per month (interquartile range 0.5, 6.5). Comparison of baseline characteristics between groups showed similar demographics, with the single difference in the severity of the spells, being more severe in the treated group. When comparing the treated and non-treated groups at 3 months, only two (5%) patients had a complete remission in the first group, whereas 20 (44%) had remission in the belladonna group (p<0.01). When considering the characteristics of the spells before and after the initiation of treatment with belladonna, 75% of the patients presented a positive response, with 44% of the patients presenting with complete resolution of the spells (p<0.01). No major adverse reaction was reported, with only 5% minor adverse events.
Belladonna is highly effective to alleviate severe breath-holding spells in young children, without any major adverse effects.
We present radiocarbon (14C) in tree rings from Mexico City and a reconstruction of fossil CO2 concentrations for the last five decades, as part of a research program to understand the 14C dynamics in this complex urban area. Background values were established by 14C concentrations in tree rings from a nearby clean area. Agreement between background and NH-zone 2 values indicate Taxodium mucronatum is a good biomonitor for annual atmospheric 14C variations. Values for the urban tree rings were significantly lower than background values, indicating a 14C depletion from fossil CO2 emissions. There is an increasing trend of fossil CO2 between 1960 and 1990, in agreement with the population growth and the increasing demand for fossil fuels in Mexico City. Between 1990 and 2000, there is an apparent decrease in fossil CO2 concentration, increasing again after 2000. The decrease in 2000, despite being of the same magnitude as the overall uncertainty, may reflect environmental policies that improved the energy efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions in the area. The increase in fossil CO2 concentration between 2000 and 2010 may be attributable to the significant growth of motor vehicle usage in Mexico City, which made transportation the main energy-demanding and -emitting sector.
Benefits to microbial fermentation in the colon and as a consequence less flatulence can be promoted for the health of adult dogs according to the amount and protein source. The present study evaluated different protein sources in dry food for brachycephalic dogs regarding microbial fermentation and nutrient digestibility. Four dry dog foods with similar protein content were formulated for adult maintenance: poultry meal (PM) diet; wheat gluten (WG) diet; PM + WG diet; and PM + WG + hydrolysed protein (HP) diet. Eight French bulldog adult dogs were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design during the 28 d trial. Fresh faeces were collected for assessment of nutrient digestibility and analyses of faecal pH, SCFA, biogenic amines, ammonia and lactate. Means were compared by the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS and by Tukey's test, considering P ≤ 0·05. The animals fed the WG and PM + WG diets showed higher digestibility for DM (P < 0·05), organic matter (P < 0·05), crude protein (P < 0·001) and lower faeces production (P < 0·02) than the PM and PM + WG + HP diets. Feeding diet PM + WG + HP resulted in lower faecal score and pH (P < 0·05) compared with other diets. Concentrations of fermentation metabolites were not statistically significantly different among diets. In conclusion, WG alone or in combination with PM improved protein and DM digestibility. Fermentation products were not affected by protein source.
This article presents 24 radiocarbon dates of different materials (animal and human bones, charcoal, and pottery) recovered from hunter-gatherer-fisher archaeological sites from the Salado River microregion, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. We used a microregional design strategy, and considered the 14C dates as a group to analyze them with Bayesian statistics. This was essential to the analysis of the chronology of these shallow sites, in which the soil dynamics add the archaeological materials into the A horizon sedimentary matrix. In these types of sites, the occupational events are difficult to identify, so archaeological indicators are needed to assess the temporal contexts.
The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) produces a complex mixture of gases and aerosols from diverse sources, including burning of fossil fuels, biomass, and wastes, with a significant biogenic contribution. We present the first results of ongoing projects to study temporal and spatial variations of 14CO2 in the area. Temporal variations reconstructed from tree rings of Taxodium mucronatum indicate a considerable radiocarbon depletion, in accordance to the vast amount of fossil fuels burnt inside Mexico Valley, with values between 62 and 246‰ lower than background values for the 1962–1968 period, and lower by 51–88‰ for the 1983–2010 period. The lower dilution found for the last decades might indicate an increase in enriched 14CO2 sources. Results from the spatial distribution, as revealed from integrated CO2 samples and grasses from six points within the MCMA collected during the 2013 dry season, show variations between sites and sample types. For integrated CO2 samples, values range from 35.6‰ to 54.0‰, and for grasses between −86.8‰ and 40.7‰. For three of the sampling points, the grasses are significantly depleted, by up to ∼133‰, as compared to the corresponding integrated CO2 sample. This may result from differences in the carbon assimilation period and exposure to different CO2 sources. Higher-than-background Δ14C values were found for all integrated CO2 samples, presumably resulting from 14C-enriched CO2 derived from forest fires in the mountains during the sampling period. Results obtained so far confirm the complexity of the 14C cycle in the MCMA.
Although dating violence takes place within the context of a couple, there are few studies exploring how the prevalence data change when violence is reported by one partner or both, and to what extent partners agree about the existence of violence. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze and compare the reports about the prevalence of violence obtained from participants and their partners, together with interpartner agreement concerning victimization and perpetration of threats, physical, verbal-emotional and sexual violence. A total of 105 young heterosexual couples answered a questionnaire about victimization and the perpetration of violence in their relationship during the previous year. The results indicated that prevalence rates varied, depending on who reported the violence -the man, the woman or the couple- perhaps because interpartner agreement was low, except for the occurrence of verbal-emotional violence and the absence of physical violence. These findings suggest the need to develop more systematic research, especially through the use of reports from both members of the couple.