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There is a consensus in psycholinguistic research that listening to unfamiliar speech constitutes a challenging listening situation. In this commentary, we explore the problems with the construct of non-native and ask whether using this construct in research is useful, specifically to shift the communicative burden from the language learner to the perceiver, who often occupies a position of power. We examine what factors affect perception of non-native talkers. We frame this question by addressing the observation that not all “difficult” listening conditions provide equal challenges. Given this, we ask how cognitive and social factors impact perception of unfamiliar accents and ask what our psycholinguistic measurements are capturing. We close by making recommendations for future work. We propose that the issue is less with the terminology of native versus non-native, but rather how our unexamined biases affect the methodological assumptions that we make. We propose that we can use the existing dichotomy to create research programs that focus on teaching perceivers to better understand talkers more generally. Finally, we call on perceivers and researchers alike to question the idea of speech being “native,” “non-native,” “unfamiliar,” and “accented” to better align with reality as opposed to our inherently biased views.
The aim of this study was to derive dietary patterns associated with cardio-metabolic traits and to examine whether these predict prospective changes in these traits and incidence of the metabolic syndrome (iMetS). Subjects from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cardiovascular cohort without cardio-metabolic disease and related drug treatments at baseline (n 4071; aged 45–67 years, 40 % men) were included. We applied reduced rank regression on thirty-eight foods to derive patterns that explain variation in response variables measured at baseline (waist circumference, TAG, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin). Patterns were examined in relation to change in cardio-metabolic traits and iMetS in subjects who were re-examined after 16·7 years (n 2704). Two dietary patterns (‘Western’ and ‘Drinker’) were retained and explained 3·2 % of the variation in response variables. The ‘Western’ dietary pattern was inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol and positively with all other response variables (both at baseline and follow-up), but there was no association with LDL at follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, the ‘Western’ dietary pattern was associated with higher risk of iMetS (hazard ratio Q4 v. Q1: 1·47; 95 % CI 1·23, 1·77; Ptrend=1·5×10−5). The ‘Drinker’ dietary pattern primarily explained variation in HDL and was not associated with iMetS. In conclusion, this study supports current food-based dietary guidelines suggesting that a ‘Western’ dietary pattern with high intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages and red and processed meats and low intakes of wine, cheese, vegetables and high-fibre foods is associated with detrimental effects on cardio-metabolic health.
Health-beneficial effects of adhering to a healthy Nordic diet index have been suggested. However, it has not been examined to what extent the included dietary components are exclusively related to the Nordic countries or if they are part of other European diets as well, suggesting a broader preventive potential. The present study describes the intake of seven a priori defined healthy food items (apples/pears, berries, cabbages, dark bread, shellfish, fish and root vegetables) across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and examines their consumption across Europe.
Cross-sectional study. A 24 h dietary recall was administered through a software program containing country-specific recipes. Sex-specific mean food intake was calculated for each centre/country, as well as percentage of overall food groups consumed as healthy Nordic food items. All analyses were weighted by day and season of data collection.
Multi-centre, European study.
Persons (n 36 970) aged 35–74 years, constituting a random sample of 519 978 EPIC participants.
The highest intakes of the included diet components were: cabbages and berries in Central Europe; apples/pears in Southern Europe; dark bread in Norway, Denmark and Greece; fish in Southern and Northern countries; shellfish in Spain; and root vegetables in Northern and Central Europe. Large inter-centre variation, however, existed in some countries.
Dark bread, root vegetables and fish are strongly related to a Nordic dietary tradition. Apples/pears, berries, cabbages, fish, shellfish and root vegetables are broadly consumed in Europe, and may thus be included in regional public health campaigns.
To examine how different scoring models for a diet quality index influence associations with mortality outcomes.
A study within the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a diet history method. The index included six components: SFA, PUFA, fish and shellfish, fibre, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. Component scores were assigned using predefined (based on dietary recommendations) and population-based cut-offs (based on median or quintile intakes). Multivariate Cox regression was used to model associations between index scores (low, medium, high) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality by sex.
Malmö, the third largest city in Sweden.
Men (n 6940) and women (n 10 186) aged 44–73 years. During a mean follow-up of 14·2 years, 2450 deaths occurred, 1221 from cancer and 709 from CVD.
The predictive capability of the index for mortality outcomes varied with type of scoring model and by sex. Stronger associations were seen among men using predefined cut-offs. In contrast, the quintile-based scoring model showed greater predictability for mortality outcomes among women. The scoring model using median-based cut-offs showed low predictability for mortality among both men and women.
The scoring model used for dietary indices may have a significant impact on observed associations with disease outcomes. The rationale for selection of scoring model should be included in studies investigating the association between dietary indices and disease. Adherence to the current dietary recommendations was in the present study associated with decreased risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality, particularly among men.
Increased plasma concentrations of small LDL particles denote an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP) that is correlated with increased circulating TAG and reduced HDL-cholesterol. Principal component analyses of subfraction concentrations have previously been used in the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort to identify three independent components, one pattern representing the ALP. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between macronutrient intakes and the principal component representing the ALP. We examined 4301 healthy subjects (46–68 years old, 60 % women) at baseline in the MDC cohort. Dietary data were collected using a modified diet history method. Plasma lipoprotein subfractions were measured using a high-resolution ion mobility method. The principal component corresponding to the ALP was significantly associated with a higher intake of disaccharides, and inversely related to protein and alcohol consumption (P < 0·001 for all). The present findings indicate that the ALP may be improved by a low intake of disaccharides, and moderate intakes of protein and alcohol.
Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
To develop a diet quality index (DQI) that assesses adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations (SNR) and the Swedish dietary guidelines (SDG).
A cross-sectional study within the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. A diet history method collected dietary data, a structured questionnaire lifestyle and socio-economic information, and anthropometric data were collected by direct measurements. The index (DQI-SNR) included six components: SFA, PUFA, fish and shellfish, dietary fibre, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose.
Men (n 4525) and women (n 8491) of the MDC cohort enrolled from September 1994 to October 1996.
For participants with high DQI-SNR scores, nutrient and food intakes were close to recommendations. However, most of the study population exceeded the recommended intake for SFA (98 %) and few reached recommended intakes for dietary fibre (24 %), fruit and vegetables (32 %), vitamin D (18 %) and folate (2 %). A high DQI-SNR score was positively associated with age, physical activity, not smoking, past food habit change, education and socio-economic status. Individuals with high scores were more likely to have a diabetes diagnosis or experienced a cardiovascular event.
Results suggest that the DQI-SNR is a useful tool for assessing adherence to the SNR 2005 and the SDG in the MDC cohort. No index has previously been developed with the aim of evaluating adherence to the current dietary recommendations in Sweden. Further validation of the DQI-SNR, and evaluation of its utility, is needed.
Studies conducted in the USA have found the individual placement and support model of supported employment to be more effective than traditional vocational rehabilitation at helping people with severe mental illness to find and maintain competitive employment.
To determine the effectiveness of the individual placement and support (supported employment) model in a Canadian setting.
A total of 150 adults with severe mental illness, who were not currently employed and who desired competitive employment, were randomly assigned to receive either supported employment (n=75) or traditional vocational services (n=75).
Over the 12 months of follow-up, 47% of clients in the supported employment group obtained at least some competitive employment, v. 18% of the control group (P<0.001). They averaged 126 h of competitive work, v. 72 inthe control group (P<0.001).
Supported employment proved more effective than traditional vocational services in a setting significantly different from settings in the USA, and may therefore be generalised to settings in other countries.
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