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It is known that Sexual Dysfunction (SD) is higher in patient with depression than in the general population. Though antidepressant seems to worsen the situation, there are also indications that the gender may play a role on it.
Evaluate the gender effect of sexual function among unmedicated MDD, MDD receiving antidepressant, and healthy controls.
The sample was formed by male and female Taiwanese outpatients in three age and sex matched groups, with sixty nine participants per group: unmedicated MDD, MDD receiving antidepressant, and healthy controls. the diagnoses of depressions were performed according DSM-IV and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire. SD was evaluated with the Chinese version of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. Finally, the data was analyzed using SPSS software v17. Mixed designed ANOVA was used.
There are significant differences between males and females CSFQ results (sex main effect F = 82.44, p < 0.001) and between groups (group main effect F = 3.48, p = 0.034). Additionally, the 2-way interaction between sex and group was also significant (F = 3.40, p = 0.036). Simple main effect analysis shows differences among male participants, between healthy and medicated males (F = 11.41, p = 0.002), but not in female (F = 1.58, p = 0.21). However the statistics weren’t different between females groups, the medicated expresses better results (similar to healthy group) than the unmedicated one.
SD is different between genders in each of the groups. Antidepressant seems to increase SD in man, while improves sexual satisfaction/function among depressive woman. We speculate that psychological improvement after treatment may have different impact between genders on sexual satisfaction.
We present results of our zoom-in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of direct collapse (DC) to supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds with radiative transfer (RT). The DC has been modeled in dark matter halos of ∼108M⊙, using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo. For the first time, the baryonic collapse has been followed down to 10−7 pc (∼0.01 AU) with on-the-fly RT and the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. We find a complex behavior involving accretion flow and associated outflows driven by the radiation force. The resulting gas dynamics around the central density peak differs profoundly from that in previous works which adopted adiabatic approximation in the core. The core forms with a photosphere at ∼1 AU, and its growth starts to saturate at ∼100M⊙. The unrelaxed core radiates intermittently near the Eddington luminosity, correlated with strong anisotropic outflows.
Thin films of CuInSe2 (CIS) and CuGaSe2 (CGS) were deposited on (100) Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering using stoichiometric targets, at various substrate temperatures. Prior to film deposition, the Si substrates were cleaned using the RCA cleaning procedure and treated in a buffered oxide etch (BOE) solution. Deposited films were characterized using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of cross-sectional samples and Hall measurements. Rutherford backscattering analysis indicated that the CIS films had a composition of Cu0.8In1.1Se1.9, whereas CGS films were Cu-poor and Ga-rich with a composition of Cu0.3Ga1.5Se1.5. Clean Cu-chalcopyrite/Si interfaces were obtained using BOE treated Si substrates. Transmission electron micrographs of cross-sectional samples indicated a polycrystalline film structure and that the native oxide on the Si substrate was eliminated. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) conducted in the TEM showed that contamination levels in the films were low. The Hall-mobility experiments performed the CIS film indicated that the material was of p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration of 9.6 x 1020/cm3 and a Hall mobility of 390 cm2V-1s-1.
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