DNA damage and repair studies are at the core of the radiation biology field and represent also the fundamental principles informing radiation therapy (RT). DNA damage levels are a function of radiation dose, whereas the type of damage and biological effects such as DNA damage complexity, depend on radiation quality that is linear energy transfer (LET). Both levels and types of DNA damage determine cell fate, which can include necrosis, apoptosis, senescence or autophagy. Herein, we present an overview of current RT modalities in the light of DNA damage and repair with emphasis on medium to high-LET radiation. Proton radiation is discussed along with its new adaptation of FLASH RT. RT based on α-particles includes brachytherapy and nuclear-RT, that is proton-boron capture therapy (PBCT) and boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We also discuss carbon ion therapy along with combinatorial immune-based therapies and high-LET RT. For each RT modality, we summarise relevant DNA damage studies. Finally, we provide an update of the role of DNA repair in high-LET RT and we explore the biological responses triggered by differential LET and dose.