The influence of various agents on the adhesion of endospores of Pasteuria penetrans to the nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied. Similarly, but to a lesser degree, we have also studied the adhesion of conidia of the fungus Dilophospora alopecuri and the coryneform bacterium Clavibacter sp. (syn. Corynebacterium rathayi) to the nematode Anguina agrostis (syn. A. funesta). Reduction in the degree of both spore and conidial attachment following their pre-treatment with periodate and the presence of PAS staining material on spores, conidia and bacteria implicated carbohydrate in these interactions. Tests involving both unbound and FITC-bound lectins demonstrated that wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) can inhibit the degree of attachment of P. penetrans to M. javanica and that this inhibition can be overcome by pre-treatment of the lectin with N, N′-diacetyl chitobiose. Endospores of P. penetrans, amphid and buccal secretions of 2nd-stage larvae of M. javanica and the cuticle and excretory pore secretions of 2nd-stage dauer larvae of A. agrostis bound WGA, indicating that accessible N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are present on these structures. Endospores of P. penetrans also bound Con A, indicating the presence of accessible α-D-glucose/α-D-mannose residues on their surface.