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To determine whether hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) could be used to decontaminate caliciviruses from surfaces in a patient room.
Feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) were used as surrogate viability markers to mimic the noncultivable human norovirus. Cell culture supernatants of FCV and MNV were dried in triplicate 35-mm wells of 6-well plastic plates. These plates were placed in various positions in a nonoccupied patient room that was subsequently exposed to HPV. Control plates were positioned in a similar room but were never exposed to HPV.
Virucidal activity was measured in cell culture by reduction in 50% tissue culture infective dose titer for FCV and by both 50% tissue culture infective dose titer and plaque reduction for MNV.
Neither viable FCV nor viable MNV could be detected in the test room after HPV treatment. At least 3.65 log reduction for FCV and at least 3.67 log reduction for MNV were found by 50% tissue culture infective dose. With plaque assay, measurable reduction for MNV was at least 2.85 log units.
The successful inactivation of both surrogate viruses indicates that HPV could be a useful tool for surface decontamination of a patient room contaminated by norovirus. Hence nosocomial spread to subsequent patients can be avoided.
To identify environmentally safe, rapidly acting agents for killing spores of Clostridium difficile in the hospital environment.
Three classic disinfectants (2% glutaraldehyde, 1.6% peracetyl ions, and 70% isopropanol) and acidified nitrite were compared for activity against C. difficile spores. Four strains of C. difficile belonging to different serogroups were tested using a dilution–neutralization method according to preliminary European Standard prEN 14347. For peracetyl ions and acidified nitrite, the subjective cleaning effect and the sporicidal activity was also tested in the presence of organic load.
Peracetyl ions were highly sporicidal and yielded a minimum 4 log10 reduction of germinating spores already at short exposure times, independent of organic load conditions. Isopropanol 70% showed low or no inactivation at all exposure times, whereas glutaraldehyde and acidified nitrite each resulted in an increasing inactivation factor (IF) over time, from an IF greater than 1.4 at 5 minutes of exposure time to greater than 4.1 at 30 minutes. Soiling conditions did not influence the effect of acidified nitrite. There was no difference in the IF among the 4 strains tested for any of the investigated agents. Acidified nitrite demonstrated a good subjective cleaning effect and peracetyl ions demonstrated a satisfactory effect.
Cidal activity was shown against C. difficile spores by glutaraldehyde, peracetyl ions, and acidified nitrite. As acidified nitrite and peracetyl ions are considered to be environmentally safe chemicals, these agents seem well suited for the disinfection of C. difficile spores in the hospital environment.
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