Applications of smart structures technology to various physical systems are primarily focused on actively controlling vibration, performance, noise, and stability. Applications range from space systems to fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft, automotive, civil structures, marine systems, machine tools, and medical devices. Early applications of smart structures technology were focused toward space systems to actively control vibration of large space structures  as well as for precision pointing in space (e.g., telescope, and mirrors ). The scope and potential of smart structures applications for aeronautical systems have subsequently expanded. Embedded or surface-bonded smart material actuators on an airplane wing or helicopter blade can induce alteration of twist/camber of airfoil (shape change), which in turn can cause variation of lift distribution and may help to control static and dynamic aeroelastic problems. For fixed-wing aircraft, applications cover active control of flutter [3, 4, 5, 6, 7], static divergence [8, 9], panel flutter , performance enhancement , and interior structure-borne noise . Compared to fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters appear to show the most potential for a major payoff with the application of smart structures technology. Given the broad scope of smart structures applications, developments in the field of rotorcraft are highlighted in a subsequent section. Although most current applications are focused on the minimization of helicopter vibration, there are other potential applications such as interior/exterior noise reduction, aerodynamic performance enhancement that includes stall alleviation, aeromechanical stability augmentation, rotor tracking, handling qualities improvement, rotor head health monitoring, and rotor primary controls implementation (e.g., swashplateless rotors) .