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This book is designed to serve as a textbook for intermediate Hebrew students and above. Sung Jin Park presents the fundamental features of the Tiberian Hebrew accents, focusing on their divisions and exegetical roles. Providing innovative methods for diagramming biblical texts, the volume explores the two major rules (hierarchy and dichotomy) of disjunctive accents. Students will also attain biblical insights from the exegetical application of the biblical texts that Hebrew syntax alone does not provide. Park's volume shows how the new perspectives on Hebrew accents enhance our understanding of biblical texts.
The experiments reported in this research paper aimed to determine the effect of supplementing different forms of L-methionine (L-Met) and acetate on protein synthesis in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T cells). Treatments were Control, L-Met, conjugated L-Met and acetate (CMA), and non-conjugated L-Met and Acetate (NMA). Protein synthesis mechanism was determined by omics method. NMA group had the highest protein content in the media and CSN2 mRNA expression levels (P < 0.05). The number of upregulated and downregulated proteins observed were 39 and 77 in L-Met group, 62 and 80 in CMA group and 50 and 81 in NMA group from 448 proteins, respectively (P < 0.05). L-Met, NMA and CMA treatments stimulated pathways related to protein and energy metabolism (P < 0.05). Metabolomic analysis also revealed that L-Met, CMA and NMA treatments resulted in increases of several metabolites (P < 0.05). In conclusion, NMA treatment increased protein concentration and expression level of CSN2 mRNA in MAC-T cells compared to control as well as L-Met and CMA treatments through increased expression of milk protein synthesis-related genes and production of the proteins and metabolites involved in energy and protein synthesis pathways.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
The dynamics of ideally polarizable spherical particles in concentrated suspensions under the effects of nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena is analysed using large-scale numerical simulations. Particles are assumed to carry no net charge and considered to undergo the combination of dielectrophoresis and induced-charge electrophoresis termed dipolophoresis. Chaotic motion and resulting hydrodynamic diffusion are known to be driven by the induced-charge electrophoresis, which dominates the dielectrophoresis. Up to a volume fraction
, the particle dynamics seems to be hindered by the increase in the magnitude of excluded volume interactions with concentration. However, a non-trivial suspension behaviour is observed in concentrated regimes, where the hydrodynamic diffusivity starts to increase with the volume fraction at
, before reaching a local maximum, and then drastically decreases on approaching random close packing. Similar non-trivial behaviours are observed in the particle velocity and number-density fluctuations around volume fractions at which the non-trivial behaviour of the hydrodynamic diffusion is observed. We explain these non-trivial behaviours as a consequence of particle contacts, which are related to the dominant mechanism of particle pairings. The particle contacts are classified into attractive and repulsive classes by the nature of contacts, and in particular, the strong repulsive contact becomes predominant at
. Moreover, this transition is visible in the pair distribution functions, which also reveal the change in the suspension microstructure in concentrated regimes. It appears that strong and massive repulsive contacts along the direction perpendicular to an electric field promote the non-trivial suspension behaviours observed in concentrated regimes.
Cable-driven parallel robots (CDPRs) possess a lot of advantages over conventional parallel manipulators and link-based robot manipulators in terms of acceleration due to their low inertia. This paper deals with under-constrained CDPRs, which manipulate the end-effector to carrying the payload by using a number of cables less than six, often used preferably owing to their simple structures. Since a smaller number of cables than six are used, the end-effector of CDPR has uncontrollable degrees of freedom and that causes swaying motion and oscillations. In this paper, a scheme to curb on the unwanted oscillation of the end-effector of the CDPR with three cables is proposed based on multimode input shaping. The precise dynamic model of the under-constrained CDPR is obtained to find natural frequencies, which depends on the position of the end-effector. The advantage of the proposed method is that it is practicable to generate the trajectories for vibration suppression based on multi-mode input-shaping scheme in spite of the complexity in the dynamics and the difficulty in computing the natural frequencies of the CDPR, which are required in any input-shaping scheme. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, computer simulations and experiments were carried out by using 3-D motion for CDPR with three cables.
Studies on welfare reform in advanced European countries have identified two established paths to welfare retrenchment: government unilateralism and corporatist bargaining. This study explores a more complicated path to welfare reform, wherein governments pursue ‘non-corporatist’ bargaining by actively combining features of unilateralism and negotiation. Such a hybrid case is explained by employing an ‘insider-outsider’ framework for public policy reform. The key argument is that the presence of exclusive insiders complicates the reform process, disqualifying both unilateralism and corporatist bargaining as feasible options for benefit cuts. The author demonstrates the validity of this claim by examining three cases of public sector pension retrenchment in the UK and Ireland during the 2000s and 2010s. Defying the common expectation that benefit cuts in residual welfare states would be promoted with government unilateralism, the public sector pension reforms in the UK and Ireland exhibited more complicated features which combined governments' unilateral initiatives and ad hoc negotiations with public sector unions. Future studies may build on this finding to examine hybrid reform cases in a general European context.
We investigated potential nosocomial aerosol transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) with droplet precautions. During aerosol generating procedures, SFTSV was be transmitted from person to person through aerosols. Thus, airborne precautions should be added to standard precautions to avoid direct contact and droplet transmission.
People who eat alone, which is becoming a new trend owing to the increasing proportion of one-person households in Korea, are more likely to become overweight and obese. Therefore, we investigated the association between having a dinner companion and BMI.
A linear regression model adjusted for covariates was utilized to examine the association between having a dinner companion and BMI. Subgroup analyses were performed, stratified by age group, gender, household income, educational level and occupation.
We used the data from the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI. Our primary independent variable was having a dinner companion while the dependent variable was BMI.
In total, 13303 individuals, aged 20 years or over, were analysed.
Compared with the solo eating group, BMI was lower in the family dinner group (β=−0·39, P<0·01) but not in the non-family dinner group (β=−0·06, P=0·67). The subgroup analysis revealed that the difference in BMI was most significant in young generations, such as those aged 20–29 years (β=−1·15, P<0·01) and 30–39 years (β=−0·78, P=0·01).
We found that people who eat dinner alone are more likely to become overweight and obese than those who eat with their family. This association was stronger in males and young adults than their counterparts. Considering the increasing trends in the proportion of single-person households and solo eating, appropriate intervention is needed.
Given its diverse disease courses and symptom presentations, multiple phenotype dimensions with different biological underpinnings are expected with bipolar disorders (BPs). In this study, we aimed to identify lifetime BP psychopathology dimensions. We also explored the differing associations with bipolar I (BP-I) and bipolar II (BP-II) disorders.
We included a total of 307 subjects with BPs in the analysis. For the factor analysis, we chose six variables related to clinical courses, 29 indicators covering lifetime symptoms of mood episodes, and 6 specific comorbid conditions. To determine the relationships among the identified phenotypic dimensions and their effects on differentiating BP subtypes, we applied structural equation modeling.
We selected a six-factor solution through scree plot, Velicer's minimum average partial test, and face validity evaluations; the six factors were cyclicity, depression, atypical vegetative symptoms, elation, psychotic/irritable mania, and comorbidity. In the path analysis, five factors excluding atypical vegetative symptoms were associated with one another. Cyclicity, depression, and comorbidity had positive associations, and they correlated negatively with psychotic/irritable mania; elation showed positive correlations with cyclicity and psychotic/irritable mania. Depression, cyclicity, and comorbidity were stronger in BP-II than in BP-I, and they contributed significantly to the distinction between the two disorders.
We identified six phenotype dimensions; in addition to symptom features of manic and depressive episodes, various comorbidities and high cyclicity constructed separate dimensions. Except for atypical vegetative symptoms, all factors showed a complex interdependency and played roles in discriminating BP-II from BP-I.
A fish may gain hydrodynamic benefits from being a member of a school. Inspired by fish schools, a two-dimensional simulation was performed for flexible fins propelled in tandem, diagonal, triangular and diamond configurations. The flow-mediated interactions between the flexible fins were analysed by using an immersed boundary method. A transverse heaving motion was prescribed on the leading edge of each fin, and other posterior parts passively adapted to the surrounding fluid as a result of the fluid–flexible-body interaction. The flexible fins were allowed to actively adjust their relative positions in the horizontal direction. The four basic stable configurations are spontaneously formed and self-sustained purely by the vortex–vortex and vortex–body interactions. The hydrodynamic benefits depend greatly on the local positions of the members. For the same heaving motion prescribed on the leading edge, the input power of the following fin in the stable tandem and diagonal configurations is lower by 14 % and 6 %, respectively, than that of the leading fin. The following fin in the diagonal formation can keep pace with the leading fin even for reduced heaving amplitudes because of the help of the leader via their shared fluid environment, where its required input power is reduced by 21 %. The heaving amplitudes of the trailing fins are reduced to optimize the propulsive efficiency, and the average efficiencies in the triangular and diamond configurations increase by up to 14 % and 19 %, respectively, over that of the isolated swimmer. The propulsive efficiencies are enhanced by 22 % for the fins in the second row and by 36 % for the fin in the third row by decreasing the heaving amplitude in the diamond formation.
Delaware is the state of incorporation for almost two-thirds of the Fortune 500 companies, as well as more than half of all companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, NASDAQ, and other major stock exchanges. This gives Delaware a seemingly unchallengeable position as the dominant producer of US corporate law. In recent years, however, some observers have suggested that Delaware's competitive position is eroding. Other states have long tried to chip away at Delaware's position, and recent Delaware legal developments may have strengthened the case for incorporating outside Delaware. More importantly, however, the federal government is increasingly preempting corporate governance law. The contributors to this volume are leading academics and practitioners with decades of experience in Delaware corporate law. They bring together a variety of perspectives that collectively provide the reader with a broad understanding of how Delaware achieved its dominant position and the threats it faces.
A radiocarbon (14C) dating technique with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied to estimate the year of death and the year of birth of unidentified human remains. Because many of the samples have been preserved in formaldehyde, it was necessary to evaluate the influence of formaldehyde on carbon ages. Samples intentionally preserved in formaldehyde during the known period were measured, and their Δ14C values were compared with results obtained from fresh samples. The influence of formaldehyde on soft tissue was 14 times larger than that on cortical bone. Unfortunately, an effective method for removing the influence of formaldehyde has not yet been found. 14C ages could be obtained only from the samples not preserved in formaldehyde. The years of birth were determined by the ages of the dentin samples, while the years of death were determined by the ages of the bone and soft tissue samples. Multiple sampling from a body provides an advantage in determination of one of two possible ages of a sample obtained using the bomb peak. Victims of the Korean War were ascertained by the year of death. The year of death and the age at death of unidentified bodies were also determined for forensic investigation.
Regarding the causes of the Sewol ferry accident that claimed 304 lives in April 2014, some scholars have blamed neoliberal reforms such as deregulation and privatization for the safety regulatory failure. Others have highlighted the role of industry influence and corruption. Our analysis shows that regulatory capture was the crucial causal factor; moreover, this capture was institutionalized from the state-corporatist arrangements of the authoritarian period rather than reflecting new arrangements under the democratic era or corruption per se. The delegation of the critical safety regulation enforcement to the shipping industry association was not introduced as a neoliberal reform but in the context of state corporatism of the Park Chung-hee regime. Democratic governments continued to protect the monopoly of the lucrative Incheon–Jeju ferry business, contrary to neoliberal logic. The legacies of state corporatism persist despite post-financial crisis reform.
The Saemangeum tidal flat, an important staging site for migratory shorebirds that travel the East Asian-Australasian (EAA) Flyway, was isolated from the eastern Yellow Sea in 2006 as part of a large-scale reclamation project. To gain a better understanding of the impacts that this reclamation has had on the long-distance migratory shorebirds that use the EAA Flyway, we examined the number of shorebirds visiting Saemangeum and three adjacent sites in the Geum Estuary (Yubu Island, the Janghang coastline, and the Geum River Channel) during the spring and fall prior to, and after, completion of the reclamation (2004–2013). A total of 48 shorebird species, including one Critically Endangered, three Endangered, and nine Near Threatened species, were observed over this period. Peak numbers of shorebirds recorded at sites in Saemangeum and the Geum Estuary following completion of the project were 74% below those recorded in 2004 and 2005, the years prior to reclamation activity. In Saemangeum, shorebird abundance declined by approximately 95% and 97.3% during the northward and southward migrations, respectively, as a result of reclamation. Although shorebird populations in the Geum Estuary increased by 5% and 20% during the northwards and southward migrations, respectively, these increases failed to offset the reduction in shorebird abundance in Saemangeum; overall, shorebird abundance at Saemangeum and the three adjacent sites in the Geum Estuary markedly declined over the reclamation period. Given the more favourable conditions of adjacent areas, sites in Saemangeum and the Geum Estuary no longer provide the habitat conditions necessary for long-distance migratory shorebirds. In order to improve habitat for staging migratory birds, we suggest that measures such as the conversion of an abandoned salt farm for use as roosting sites, the construction of artificial barriers to prevent human disturbance, and re-opening of the river-banks to facilitate water flow be implemented.
This article explores how transnationalism can be understood as an interdiscursive process. By making connections with chronotopes of past places along a transmigrant's trajectory, interdiscursivity allows for the emergence of complex indexical meaning associated with different speakers and different ways of speaking, imbuing the transmigrant's mobility with specific social significance. This article demonstrates this point through an analysis of how South Korean mid-level managers of multinational corporations in Singapore imagined their positioning in the global workplace. By tracing the ways the managers employed metapragmatic discourse associated with multiple chronotopes to make sense of their reasonably successful but limited careers, it offers an account of how interdiscursivity shaped their understanding of their own positionality as Koreans working beyond the time-space of Korea. (Interdiscursivity, transnationalism, chronotope, Korea, English, intercultural communication)*