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Here we report a quantitative analysis of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes from a 22-year-old oocyte donor, retrieved after ovarian-controlled hyperstimulation. Five surplus donor oocytes were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a stereological analysis was used to quantify the distribution of organelles, using the point-counting technique with an adequate stereological grid. Comparisons between means of the relative volumes (Vv) occupied by organelles in the three oocyte regions, cortex (C), subcortex (SC) and inner cytoplasm (IC), followed the Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction. Life cell imaging and TEM analysis confirmed donor oocyte nuclear maturity. Results showed that the most abundant organelles were smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) elements (26.8%) and mitochondria (5.49%). Significant differences between oocyte regions were found for lysosomes (P = 0.003), cortical vesicles (P = 0.002) and large SER vesicles (P = 0.009). These results were quantitatively compared with previous results using prophase I (GV) and metaphase I (MI) immature oocytes. In donor MII oocytes there was a normal presence of cortical vesicles, SER tubules, SER small, medium and large vesicles, lysosomes and mitochondria. However, donor MII oocytes displayed signs of cytoplasmic immaturity, namely the presence of dictyosomes, present in GV oocytes and rare in MI oocytes, of SER very large vesicles, characteristic of GV oocytes, and the rarity of SER tubular aggregates. Results therefore indicate that the criterion of nuclear maturity used for donor oocyte selection does not always correspond to cytoplasmic maturity, which can partially explain implantation failures with the use of donor oocytes.
In this short note, we deal with complete noncompact expanding and steady Ricci solitons of dimension
More precisely, under an integrability assumption, we obtain a characterization for the generalized cigar Ricci soliton and the Gaussian Ricci soliton.
Crises such as Hurricane Maria and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have revealed that untimely reporting of the death toll results in inadequate interventions, impacts communication, and fuels distrust on response agencies. Delays in establishing mortality are due to the contested definition of deaths attributable to a disaster and lack of rapid collection of vital statistics data from inadequate health system infrastructure. Readily available death counts, combined with geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic data, can serve as a baseline to build a continuous mortality surveillance system. In an emergency setting, real-time Total, All-cause, Excess Mortality (TEM) can be a critical tool, granting authorities timely information ensuring a targeted response and reduce disaster impact. TEM measurement can identify spikes in mortality, including geographic disparities and disproportionate deaths in vulnerable populations. This study recommends that measuring total, all-cause, excess mortality as a first line of response should become the global standard for measuring disaster impact.
Life expectancy has increased exponentially in the last century accompanied by disability, poor quality of life, and all-cause mortality in older age due to the high prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity in older people. Biologically, the aging process reduces the cell’s metabolic and functional efficiency, and disrupts the cell’s anabolic and catabolic homeostasis, predisposing older people to many dysfunctional conditions such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and diabetes. In the immune system, aging also alters cells' metabolic and functional efficiency, a process known as ‘immunosenescence’, where cells become more broadly inflammatory and their functionality is altered. Notably, autophagy, the conserved and important cellular process that maintains the cell’s efficiency and functional homeostasis may protect the immune system from age-associated dysfunctional changes by regulating cell death in activated CD4+ T cells. This regulatory process increases the delivery of the dysfunctional cytoplasmic material to lysosomal degradation while increasing cytokine production, proliferation, and differentiation of CD4+ T cell-mediated immune responses. Poor proliferation and diminished responsiveness to cytokines appear to be ubiquitous features of aged T cells and may explain the delayed peak in T cell expansion and cytotoxic activity commonly observed in the ‘immunosenescence’ phenotype in the elderly. On the other hand, physical exercise stimulates the expression of crucial nutrient sensors and inhibits the mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade which increases autophagic activity in cells. Therefore, in this perspective review, we will first contextualize the overall view of the autophagy process and then, we will discuss how body adiposity and physical fitness may counteract autophagy in naïve CD4+ T cells in aging.
This systematic literature review aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics and methods used in studies applying the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) concept for infectious diseases within European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and the United Kingdom. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched for articles reporting the assessment of DALY and its components. We considered studies in which researchers performed DALY calculations using primary epidemiological data input sources. We screened 3053 studies of which 2948 were excluded and 105 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 22 were multi-country and 83 were single-country studies, of which 46 were from the Netherlands. Food- and water-borne diseases were the most frequently studied infectious diseases. Between 2015 and 2022, the number of burden of infectious disease studies was 1.6 times higher compared to that published between 2000 and 2014. Almost all studies (97%) estimated DALYs based on the incidence- and pathogen-based approach and without social weighting functions; however, there was less methodological consensus with regards to the disability weights and life tables that were applied. The number of burden of infectious disease studies undertaken across Europe has increased over time. Development and use of guidelines will promote performing burden of infectious disease studies and facilitate comparability of the results.
Refaunation can be used to restore empty habitat in Atlantic Forests. TNP has suitable habitat for all ongoing reintroductions. At TNP, some plants are only dispersed/consumed by reintroduced species. We need to continue monitoring the recovery of ecological interactions and population establishment.
Exposure to a diet with a high saturated fat content can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract, causing losses in the absorption of nutrients and favoring the appearance of diseases. The objective was to assess the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) in the perinatal (pregnancy and lactation) and post-weaning period on the histomorphometry, neuroplasticity, and histopathology of the ileum. Wistar rats were divided into four subgroups: Control/Control (CC, n = 10) rats fed a control diet (C) throughout the trial period; Control/HFD (CH, n = 9) rats fed diet C (perinatal) and HFD after weaning; HFD/Control (HC, n = 10) rats fed HFD (perinatal) and diet C (post-weaning); HFD/HFD (HH, n = 9) rats fed HFD throughout the experimental period. There was atrophy of the Ileum wall with a reduction in the muscular tunic, submucosa, and mucosa thickness in the HH group of 37%, 28%, and 46%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The depth of the crypts decreased by 29% (p < 0.0001) and height increased by 5% (p < 0.0013). Villus height decreased by 41% and 18% in HH and HC groups (p < 0.0001) and width decreased by 11% in the HH (p < 0.0001). The height of the enterocytes decreased by 18% in the HH (p < 0.0001). There was a decrease in the area of the myenteric and submucosal plexus ganglia in the HH and HC groups (p < 0.0001). The number, occupation, and granules of Paneth cells increased in the HH and HC groups (p < 0.0001). Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) increased in all groups exposed to the HFD. Goblet cells decreased in groups CH and HH (p < 0.0001). The evidence from this study suggests that the HFD had altered the histomorphometry, neuroplasticity, and histopathology of the ileum of the rats.
Chronic Hepatitis C infection is considered a systemic disease with extrahepatic manifestations, mainly neuropsychiatric symptoms,
which is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication is currently achieved in >98% of cases with oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA).
To study potential clinical neuropsychiatric changes (mood, cognition, sleep, gastrointestinal, sickness, and motion) in HCV-infected patients after HCV eradication with DAA.
Design: Cohort study. Subjects: 37 HCV-infected patients, aged<55 years old, with non-advanced liver disease receiving DAA; free of current mental disorder. 24 healthy controls were included at baseline. Assessment: -Baseline (BL) (socio-demographic and clinical variables, MINI-DSM-IV, and Neurotoxicity Scale (NRS), (mood, cognitive, sleep, gastrointestinal, sickness and motor dimensions). Follow-up: End-of-treatment, 12weeks-after and 48weeks-after DAA: NRS. Analysis: Descriptive and bivariate non-parametrical analysis.
NRS total score and dimensions where different between cases and controls (.000) at baseline. NRS total score (.000) and mood (.000), cognition (.000), sleep (.002), gastrointestinal (.017), and sickness (.003), except motor dimension score (.130) showed significant longitudinal improvement.
HCV-infected patients with mild liver disease presented significantly worse scores for neurotoxicity symptomatology in all dimensions compared to healthy individuals. After HCV eradication with DAA, both at short and long follow-up a significant improvement of the NRS total score and each of the dimensions (except motor) were observed. However, they did not reach the values of healthy individuals, suggesting a not complete neuropsychiatric restoration in the period studied. Grant: ICIII-FIS:PI17/02297.(One way to make Europe) (RMS) and Gilead Fellowship-GLD17/00273 (ZM); and the support of SGR17/1798 (RMS)
The WHO would increase diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis in the world by 2030, based on the high efficacy of direct-acting-antivirals against HCV, extended vaccination programs in HBC, and epidemiological data. Diagnostic of HCV/HBV infection has been simplified by point-of-care (POC) devices (cheap/easy-to-use/interprete/qick-results), detecting anti-HCV-antibodies or HBV-antigen in capillary blood at the patients´site. The current seroprevalence of viral hepatitis B/C in general population in Spain is 0.5%/1% and would be higher (3-17%) in people with severe-mental-disorder due to risk factors and traditionally less access to health care.
To design a screening protocol for HCV eradication and HBV-detection, and risk factors among severe-mental-disorder patients in a CommunityMentalHealthCenter. To guarantee equal access to viral hepatitis screening and therapy among this population.
Outpatients visited along one-year who accepts participate. Using POC-device for qualitative detection of anti-HCV-antibodies (Quickview-of-Lumiquick-Diagnostics®)/HBsAG (Abbott-Rapid-Diagnostics®). Socio-demographic data; mental disorder(ICD-10); HCV/HBV risk-factors; Neurotoxicity-scale (mood/cognition/sleep/gastrointestinal/sickness/motor); SF-12; Patient-satisfaction. Subjects with positive HCV/HBV POC-test will have a on-site venopuncture to assess hemograme/liver tests, and HCV-RNA (Cobas-TaqMan-RocheDiagnostics)/HBsAg-ELISA (Atellica-Siemens). In positive HCV-RNA (active infection) the psychiatric-team will inform the hepatology-team for non-invasive liver fibrosis assessment and DAA prescription. The patient will receive 8-12-weeks on-site treatment, and assessed (Neurotoxicity/SF-12).HCV cure will be confirmed by HCV-RNA in blood. Chronic-cases will be managed at Hepatology-Unit.
We will present the results of the implementation of the programme and their ability to detect viral-hepatitis-positive cases among patients with severe-mental-disorders and to treat them effectively.
Our results may support the generalisation of the programme in among CMHC’s.
The Covid-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the mental health of adolescents. Several descriptive studies and systematic reviews have shown an increase in suicide rates in this age group.
- To present a literary review on the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the mental health and suicidal behavior of adolescents around the world. - To present data on admission rates due to suicidal behavior during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic in a Spanish child-adolescent psychiatric hospitalization unit.
- We will present a literature review and a retrospective cross-sectional study on admission rates for suicidal behavior in a child-adolescent psychiatric hospitalization unit. - Admission rates for suicidal behavior during the year prior to the pandemic will be compared with rates relative to the first year of the pandemic.
- We have found a significant increase in admission rates for suicidal behavior during the year of the pandemic. Similar results have been found in different studies and meta-analyzes. - The socio-demographic characteristics of the patients are quite similar in the two periods of time analyzed, but the reference to intra-family problems has been more frequent in the year of the pandemic.
Our data is in line with other studies suggesting that the Covid-19 pandemic has had a strong impact on teenage suicidal behavior.
Fear is an unpleasant emotional response to perceiving a threat causing physiological changes. Humans feel fear for positive motives, as it plays a crucial role in our survival. Just as the right balance in life is ideal, pathological fear is often described in one of its exaggerations, of having too much. However, lack of fear or “hypophobia” can be just as devastating and debilitating. This can be demonstrated in the analogy between those who feel no pain who also demonstrate increased risk and decreased life expectancy.
The authors aim to explore the concept of fear, discussing currently known physiological mechanisms in order to explain the effects that alterations of these mechanisms can have on fear responses, namely lack of fear, and subsequently the consequence of this on mental health.
A brief non-systematized literature review was performed based on works most pertinent to the topic discussed.
Muted fear responses have been mentioned in the literature, principally associated with medical conditions affecting the physiological fear pathways, including Urbach-Wiethe disease. Amygdala damage provokes abnormal fear reactions and reduced fear experience. This appears to be similar to what is seen in psychopathy, where abnormalities in the limbic system produce abnormal fear responses.
Any extreme can cause havoc on a well-balanced machine. Just as the excess of fear results in mental issues such as anxiety, a lack of fear can also be debilitating. Those demonstrating less fear could help investigators better understand mental health disorders that have been demonstrated to be mediated by similar processes.
The behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a devastating neurodegenerative syndrome with its peak in the early sixties at about 13 per 100,00. The diagnosis of bvFTD relies on clinical assessment as patients present executive and behavioural deficits, like apathy, loss of motivation and personality changes. Current diagnosis criteria lack specificity and symptomatic overlap between bvFTD and primary psychiatric disorders (PPD) pose a diagnostic conundrum, with half of bvFTD patients previously receiving a psychiatric diagnosis.
The goal is to discuss the syntomatic overlap of these two entities.
Brief non-systematic literature review on the topic, illustrated by a case-report presentation.
A 69 year old men, retired and single, is committed for thought and behavior disorganization and insomnia. He presented expansive mood but also temporal and spatial disorientation and periods of incongruous speech. This patient’s clinical presentation could both entice a diagnosis of bvFTD but also of an affective disorder, especially since it has been reported that neuropsychiatric presentations, like late-onset psychosis or mania, can be the initial presentation of this form of dementia, particularly in patients with C9orf72 mutations, who often display persecutory or grandiosity delusions.
This clinical case exemplifies the difficulty that lies in differentiating cases of bvFTD from late-onset idiopathic mood or psychotic disorders. It is important to consider that on cognitive assessment patients with bvFTD score significantly worse on executive function tests that PPD patients No disease- modifying therapies are available for patients with bvFTD, therefore drug treatment should focus on the most disruptive or taggable behaviours.
The word cringe has suffered alterations in its colloquial application, with its most recent version, adopted by generation Z and millennials, as a response to embarrassment or social awkwardness by proxy. This odd emotion is interesting in that it translates a vicarious embarrassment which is elicited whenever one is in the presence of a social blunder, public failures and threats to another’s social integrity.
The authors aim to explore the novel concept of cringe, briefly discussing what is currently known about the emotional response. A potential correlation between empathy and cringe is discussed as well as the hypothesis that certain psychiatric disorders such as personality disorder may demonstrate altered cringe responses.
The authors propose a non-systematized brief literature review on works most pertinent to the topic.
Formal and structured studies into the concept of cringe are far and few between, however, the literature does demonstrate that, the neural pathways of how social closeness affects our experience of cringe are starting to be explored. The concept of cringe, has also been described as a vicarious social pain. Exploration into the empathy pathways and their abnormalities, may demonstrate the underlying construct of cringe. Lack of this feeling may be present in those with empathy alterations, such as is seen in antisocial personality disorder.
Cringe is an uncomfortable feeling that surges when in the presence of someone suffering socially. Understanding this oddity may permit further understanding of empathy pathways as well as exploring the neural abnormalities of those who do not feel cringe.
On January 2021 the Department of Psychiatry became the only unit exclusively dedicated to COVID patients with severe mental illness in acute decompensation. Only patients in risk of rapid medical deterioration were excluded and forwarded to intensive care.
Discussion of this unprecedented experience.
Analysis of 28 patients hospitalized during 3 months with both an acute psychiatric disorder and an SARS-CoV-2 infection; description of the multidisciplinary intervention made.
Our sample was characterized by a majority of patients with an acute psychotic episode derived from a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (42%) or a bipolar affective disorder (21%). Only 3% of the patients had a diagnosis of severe major depressive disorder. And 10% of patients developed severe respiratory symptoms requiring oxygen or urgent transfer to COVID medical wards. Most patients presented periods of psychomotor agitation, lack of impulse control and self-aggression. Psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions had to be adapted to these unusual conditions. Most of them had already gone through a period of isolation in the buffer ward created to exclude false negatives, which promoted atypical deliriums and symptoms of post-traumatic stress. The psychiatric team was faced with the emergent need to adapt an intervention model based on trust to a model that had to prioritize physical safety.
The pandemic experience was transformative for all who lived through it. From the challenge perspective, it may have been enriching. But the maintained confrontation with the antithesis of therapy, defined by “caring, supporting, communicating, approaching”, was devastating in ways that we consider essential to be debated.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by episodic changes in affect, motivation, cognition and behavior. This severe mental disorder has a prevalence of at least 1% and a high heritability of 60%-80%. The pathophysiology is still poorly understood but evidence indicate that the disorder relates to disturbances in front-limbic networks relevant for emotion processing and regulation. New techniques have been used to study BD and showed aberrante white matter (WM) microstructure in the corpus callosum and from-limbic pathways. However, lithium, a mood stabilizier, it looks like has celular and neuromodulatory effects.
The authors elaborate a narrative literature review to identify the existing clinical evidence of lithium’s effect on the WM from BD patients.
Pubmed databased searched using the therms “bipolar disorder”, “white matter” and “lithium”.
Lithium is a bipolar medication that confers treatment and long-term prophylaxis and been reported as having neuroprotective effects.
Studies that used new techniques such diffusion tensor imaging measures to assess white matter integrity reported a positive effect of lithium on the integrity of WM of BD patients and suggest that response to lithium treatment in BD patients is associated with normalization of WM microstructure in regions associated with emotion processing.
Lithium appears to positively influence the evolution of the white matter abnormalities described in BD patients however further investigation is required to strongly reinforce this potential and safety.
Life is a stage in which we are all actors and online we can choose who we want to be. Catfishing is a modern phenomenon in which individuals present themselves online as someone they are not as a means of engaging with others through an idealized avatar. This term has gained prominence since its portrayal in documentary and television series. With the emergence of catfishing, an expectation of betrayal in online relationships is anticipated with increasing caution being exercised by those that engage in online forums.
The authors aim to explore this phenomenon and explore what personality traits might be associated with those who engage in catfishing others and in those that fall for the dupe.
A review of the recent literature on the topic with focus on that which is most relevant to the theme was included.
The literature demonstrates that catfishing is an increasing trend as our online social interaction also increases. Catfishing appears to exist on a scale, where approximately 80% of the online population engage in some form, by means of amplifying their social status. Those with low self-esteem, poor self-worth with and a need to connect and to be validated were most susceptible.
The internet permits anonymity where trading “real world” skins with digital ones creating avatars in order to seek what is desired. Catfishing raises questions about the nature of the human self and the role it plays in deception. Understanding how patients use the internet may provide insight into how personality acts on a stage of total anonymity.
To evaluate the impact of genetic deletion of receptors of the counterregulatory arms of the renin–angiotensin system in depressive-like behaviours.
8–12 weeks-old male mice wild type (WT, C57BL/6J) and mice with genetic deletion of MrgD (MrgD KO) or Mas receptors (Mas KO) were subjected to the Forced Swim Test (FST) and the Tail Suspension Test (TST). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blockade of Mas was performed by acute intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of its selective antagonist, A779.
No statistical difference in immobility time was observed between MrgD KO and WT male animals subjected to FST and TST. However, acute icv injection of A779 significantly increased the immobility time of MrgD KO male mice subjected to FST and TST, suggesting the involvement of Mas in preventing depressive-like behaviour. Indeed, Mas KO male animals showed increased immobility time in FST and TST, evidencing a depressive-like behaviour in these animals, in addition to a reduction in BDNF levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. No changes in BDNF levels were observed in MrgD KO male animals.
Our data showed that Mas plays an important role in the neurobiology of depression probably by modulating BDNF expression. On the contrary, lack of MrgD did not alter depressive-like behaviour, which was supported by the lack of alterations in BDNF levels.
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led the implementation of institutional infection control protocols. This study will determine the effects of these protocols on outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with endovascular therapy (EVT). Methods: Uninterrupted time series analysis of the impact of COVID-19 safety protocols on AIS patients undergoing EVT. We analyze data from prospectively collected quality improvement databases at 6 centers from March 11, 2019 to March 10, 2021. The primary outcome is 90-day modified Rankin Score (mRS). The secondary outcomes are angiographic time metrics. Results: Preliminary analysis of one stroke center included 214 EVT patients (n=150 pre-pandemic). Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two periods. Time metrics “last seen normal to puncture” (305.7 vs 407.2 min; p=0.05) and “hospital arrival to puncture” (80.4 vs 121.2 min; p=0.04) were significantly longer during pandemic compared to pre-pandemic. We found no significant difference in 90-day mRS (2.0 vs 2.2; p=0.506) or successful EVT rate (89.6% vs 90%; p=0.93). Conclusions: Our results indicate an increase in key time metrics of EVT in AIS during pandemic, likely related to infection control measures. Despite the delays, we found no difference in clinical outcomes between the two periods.
Metazoan parasite communities can experience temporal structural changes related to seasonal and/or local variations in several biotic and abiotic environmental factors. However, few studies have addressed this issue in tropical regions, where changes in water temperature are less extreme than in temperate regions, so the factors or processes that can generate variations in these parasite communities are as yet unclear. We quantified and analysed the parasite communities of 421 Lutjanus peru (Nichols & Murphy, 1922) collected from Acapulco Bay in Guerrero, Mexico, over a four-year period (August 2018 to April 2021), to identify any interannual variation due to local biotic and abiotic factors influenced by natural oceanographic phenomena, such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation, or La Niña. Twenty-five metazoan parasite taxa were recovered and identified: seven Digenea species; two Monogenea; one Cestoda; one Acanthocephala; four Nematoda; and ten of Crustacea (seven Copepoda and three Isopoda). The digeneans and copepods were the best represented parasite groups. The parasite communities were characterized by a high numerical dominance of helminth larvae. Species richness at the component community level (13 to 19 species) was similar to reported richness in other Lutjanus spp. The parasite communities of L. peru had a high variability in species composition, but low aggregate variability (e.g. species diversity), suggesting that structure of these communities may be quite stable over time. A clear interannual variation pattern was not observed, suggesting that parasite species of this host may respond differently to variations in environmental factors. Interannual variations were possibly caused by a combination of biotic (i.e. host feeding behaviour and body size) and local abiotic factors (influenced by climatic anomalies) which generated notable changes in the infection levels of several component species.
The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Altmetric score, number of reads, and citations for paediatric cardiology manuscripts correlate with one another. A secondary objective was to determine the extent to which factors mediated citation number for paediatric cardiology manuscripts.
Data for this study came from manuscripts published in Cardiology in the Young (2010–2021). Data were extracted by using data shared on the journal website. Spearman’s correlation analyses were conducted between manuscript reads, citations, and Altmetric score. Regression analyses were conducted with number of citations as the dependent variable and year of publication, publication type, number of reads, and Altmetric score as independent variables.
A total of 2642 manuscripts were included in the final analyses. Reads and citations had poor correlation (r-value 0.32); reads and Altmetric score had negligible correlation (r-value 0.26); and Altmetric score and citations had negligible correlation (r-value 0.07). Year of publication was independently associated with number of citations (β –0.95, p-value <0.01). Manuscript type was independently associated with number of citations (β 1.04, p-value <0.01). Number of reads was independently associated with citations (β 0.01, p-value <0.01). Altmetric score was independently associated with number of citations (β 0.05, p-value <0.01).
This study describes the correlation of reads, citations, and Altmetric score in manuscripts published in Cardiology in the Young, demonstrating poor correlation, at best, between these metrics. Each bibliometric index seems to represent a different phenomenon of manuscript consumption. No single bibliometric index in isolation offers ample representation of manuscript consumption.