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The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of cactus pear as a moistening additive on fermentative and microbiological characteristics, aerobic stability (AS), chemical composition and in situ rumen degradability of corn grain silage at different opening times. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme with four levels of dry matter (DM) (50; 60; 70 and 80% of DM) and three opening times (30; 60 and 120 days after ensiling), with four replications. There was an effect of interaction (P < 0.05) between the DM levels and opening times on silage yeast population, effluent losses, gas losses, dry matter recovery (DMR), AS of the silage and on lactic acid bacteria, mould and yeast populations after AS trial. The 60% DM level presented DMR values above 930 g/kg of DM. However, the lowest AS time (96.52 h) was observed in silages with 60% DM at 60 days after ensiling, although all silages have shown high AS. The DM in situ degradability of the ensiled mass increased after the ensiling process at all DM levels and opening times, with the 60% DM content showing the best result. When using cactus pear as a corn grain moistening additive, the 60% DM level is recommended when the opening time is up 120 days.
This paper presents a compilation of atmospheric radiocarbon for the period 1950–2019, derived from atmospheric CO2 sampling and tree rings from clean-air sites. Following the approach taken by Hua et al. (2013), our revised and extended compilation consists of zonal, hemispheric and global radiocarbon (14C) data sets, with monthly data sets for 5 zones (Northern Hemisphere zones 1, 2, and 3, and Southern Hemisphere zones 3 and 1–2). Our new compilation includes smooth curves for zonal data sets that are more suitable for dating applications than the previous approach based on simple averaging. Our new radiocarbon dataset is intended to help facilitate the use of atmospheric bomb 14C in carbon cycle studies and to accommodate increasing demand for accurate dating of recent (post-1950) terrestrial samples.
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led an implementation of institutional infection control protocols. This study will determine the effects of these protocols on outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with endovascular therapy (EVT). Methods: Uninterrupted time series analysis of the impact of COVID-19 safety protocols on AIS patients undergoing EVT. We analyze data from prospectively collected quality improvement databases at 9 centers from March 11, 2019 to March 10, 2021. The primary outcome is 90-day modified Rankin Score (mRS). The secondary outcomes are angiographic time metrics. Results: Preliminary analysis of one stroke center included 214 EVT patients (n=144 pre-pandemic). Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two periods. Time metrics “last seen normal to puncture” (305.7 vs 407.2 min; p=0.05) and “hospital arrival to puncture” (80.4 vs 121.2 min; p=0.04) were significantly longer during pandemic compared to pre-pandemic. We found no significant difference in 90-day mRS (2.0 vs 2.2; p=0.506) or successful EVT rate (89.6% vs 90%; p=0.93). Conclusions: Our results indicate an increase in key time metrics of EVT in AIS during the pandemic, likely related to infection control measures. Despite the delays, we found no difference in clinical outcomes between the two periods.
To assess the influence of presbylarynx and presbycusis on Voice Handicap Index and emotional status.
A case–control, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted of patients aged 65 years or older referred to an otorhinolaryngology department from January to September 2020. Presbycusis was assessed by pure tone and vocal audiometry. Each subject underwent fibre-optic videolaryngoscopy with stroboscopy, and presbylarynx was considered when two or more of the following endoscopic findings were identified: vocal fold bowing, prominence of vocal processes in abduction, and a spindle-shaped glottal gap. Each subject completed two questionnaires: Voice Handicap Index and Geriatric Depression Scale (short-form).
The studied population included 174 White European subjects, with a mean age of 73.99 years, of whom 22.8 per cent presented both presbylarynx and presbycusis. Multivariate linear regression revealed that only presence and severity of presbylarynx had an influence on Voice Handicap Index-30 scores. However, both spindle-shaped glottal gap and presbycusis influenced Geriatric Depression Scale scores.
Presbylarynx has a strong association with the impact of voice on quality of life. Presbylarynx and presbycusis seem to have a cumulative effect on emotional status.
Dietary supplements have been increasingly used by gym users and are often consumed without the guidance of a health professional. Moreover, the indiscriminate supplements use can have adverse health effects, such as changes in liver and kidney function. The aim of this study was to verify the association between dietary supplements intake with alterations in the liver and kidney function among gym users. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 594 gym users (mean age 37 (sd 14) years, 55·2 % women) from a city in southern Brazil. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the use of dietary supplements. The markers of the liver (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase) and renal (creatinine and urea) function were also evaluated on a subsample of the study population. Data were analysed by binary logistic regression, adjusted for sex, age and education. The prevalence of dietary supplement intake was 36·0 %. Individuals who intake dietary supplements showed a higher prevalence to present slight alterations in the AST enzyme and in the urea after adjustments for potential confounders. In conclusion, the use of dietary supplement was associated with slight alterations in AST enzyme and in the urea among gym users. These findings show the importance of using supplements correctly, especially with guidance from professionals trained to avoid possible risks to health.
In different parts of the world, aphid populations and their natural enemies are influenced by landscapes and climate. In the Neotropical region, few long-term studies have been conducted, maintaining a gap for comprehension of the effect of meteorological variables on aphid population patterns and their parasitoids in field conditions. This study describes the general patterns of oscillation in cereal winged aphids and their parasitoids, selecting meteorological variables and evaluating their effects on these insects. Aphids exhibit two annual peaks, one in summer–fall transition and the other in winter-spring transition. For parasitoids, the highest annual peak takes place during winter and a second peak occurs in winter–spring transition. Temperature was the principal meteorological regulator of population fluctuation in winged aphids and parasitoids during the year. The favorable temperature range is not the same for aphids and parasitoids. For aphids, temperature increase resulted in population growth, with maximum positive effect at 25°C. Temperature also positively influenced parasitoid populations, but the growth was asymptotic around 20°C. Although rainfall showed no regulatory function on aphid seasonality, it influenced the final number of insects over the year. The response of aphids and parasitoids to temperature has implications for trophic compatibility and regulation of their populations. Such functions should be taken into account in predictive models.
The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has improved with the search of novel antigens; however, their performance is limited when samples from VL/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected patients are tested. In this context, studies conducted to identify more suitable antigens to detect both VL and VL/HIC coinfection cases should be performed. In the current study, phage display was performed using serum samples from healthy subjects and VL, HIV-infected and VL/HIV-coinfected patients; aiming to identify novel phage-exposed epitopes to be evaluated with this diagnostic purpose. Nine non-repetitive and valid sequences were identified, synthetized and tested as peptides in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments. Results showed that three (Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4) peptides showed excellent performance to diagnose VL and VL/HIV coinfection, with 100% sensitivity and specificity values. The other peptides showed sensitivity varying from 50.9 to 80.0%, as well as specificity ranging from 60.0 to 95.6%. Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4 also showed a potential prognostic effect, since specific serological reactivity was significantly decreased after patient treatment. Bioinformatics assays indicated that Leishmania trypanothione reductase protein was predicted to contain these three conformational epitopes. In conclusion, data suggest that Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4 could be tested for the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV coinfection.
Literature on childhood Functional Neurological Disorders (FNDs) is spare. Clinical presentations are vaguely characterized and often misdiagnosed in younger ages. Their main neurological features enrol: Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), Functional movement disorders (FMDs), sensory alterations, cephalgia and feeding problems.
The study was aimed to better characterize the childhood population of FND, because of they represent an emerging challenge for clinicians, giving its higher presentation in the younger age and the difficulties of an early and differential diagnosis as well as an effective management.
Our study retrospectively examined the characteristics of 82 FNDs children and adolescents (8 to 16 y.o.; 13 males; 29 females) referred as neurological inpatients of an urban academic neuropsychiatric department, from 2014 to 2019. Three main clinical aspects were analysed: type and pattern of symptoms manifestations (DSM-5 criteria); Life Events; family functioning.
FND accounted for 2% of 5-years consultations of neurological inpatients (M: F=1:2). The clinical presentation was characterized in 70% by pattern of co-expressed neurological symptoms: FMDs (9.5%); PNES (12%); dizziness/lipothymia (12%); paraesthesia/anaesthesia (16%). Generalized pain was associated in 38% of the reported patterns while cephalgia in 44%. Sleep disorders were reported in 40%. Previous psychiatric diagnoses were uncommon (2 out 82). Antecedent stressors were identified in 97% of patients for personal illness history and in the 93% for chronic illness in the family anamnesis. Family problems were in 25% of cases.
Our data contributes to better characterize the childhood population of FND, describing clinical patterns of presentation, highlighting putative antecedent stressors and risk factors
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is affecting numerous dimensions of our society since the beginning of the outbreak. A significant increase in emotional distress was expected in the general population, particularly among the high-risk groups such as the oldest, chronic patients, healthcare professionals, and psychopathology vulnerable people. There was an urgent need to adapt and create solutions to promote mental health. Given the recommendations to minimize face-to-face interactions, several helplines were widely developed.
In this work, we aim to reflect on the experience of a university helpline, that integrated efforts with the regional mental health care services.
A University helpline was created to give support to the regional community outside academia. The team was created on an online teamwork platform, to communicate through the chat, carry videoconference meetings, and store useful files. A Manchester screening decision tree was adopted, to define a set of guidelines to provide support to the callers, based mainly on the guidelines defined by the Order of Portuguese Psychologists. Liaison with the mental health care services, including other specific helplines, was established.
Notwithstanding all the efforts, the number of received calls was scarce, similarly to helplines created by other national universities and by other entities.
A new approach to psychological intervention in crisis is needed, maintaining integrated efforts, and taking advantage of the opportunity to foster personalized mental health care in the digital era. It is important to continuously assess the value of integrated efforts in patient care and to the healthcare system.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric manifestations as part of the disease. Previous neuroimaging studies showed brain connectivity dysfunction among HCV-infected patients
To assess, by MR in resting state, the potential structural and connectivity changes before (BL) and after HCV eradication (FU12) with direct-acting antivirals (DAA), along with clinical parameters.
Twenty-one HCV-patients, aged≤55 years, without psychiatric history, nor advanced liver disease, and eligible for DAA, and 25 healthy controls were included. Evaluations were performed at BL and FU12. Brain volume and local gyrification index (LGI) were assessed in MR-T1, and functional connectivity by seed-based analysis (left insula). Depression (MADRS/PHQ9) and neurotoxicity symptomatology (NRS) were assessed. We compared patients between BL/FU12, and controls by means of paired/independent T-test analysis.
Substained virologycal response was obtained in all patients (100%). Depressive and neurotoxicity symptomatology improved after cure (p<0.01). HCV-patients showed a reduced volume in a right latero-occipital area compared to controls (CWP<0.005) in both BL and FU12. This difference was smaller between FU12 and controls. LGI was higher in FU12-HCV compared to BL-HCV. fMRI connectivity showed a high association between insula and occipital/parietal territories in patients than controls, being higher among BL-HCV and controls. Differences were limited to occipital areas among FU12-HCV and controls.
Neuropsychiatric symptomatology improved after cure. Left insula is altered among HCV-patients in structured and connectivity (mainly occipital areas). After cure differences with controls were reduced, suggesting a partial restoration of brain connectivity.
This study aimed to analyse the geographical distribution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to identify high-risk areas in space and time for the occurrence of cases and deaths in the indigenous population of Brazil. This is an ecological study carried out between 24 March and 26 October 2020 whose units of analysis were the Special Indigenous Sanitary Districts. The Getis-Ord General G and Getis-Ord Gi* techniques were used to verify the spatial association of the phenomena and a retrospective space–time scan was performed. There were 32 041 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 471 deaths. The non-randomness of cases (z score = 5.40; P < 0.001) and deaths (z score = 3.83; P < 0.001) were confirmed. Hotspots were identified for cases and deaths in the north and midwest regions of Brazil. Sixteen high-risk space–time clusters were identified for the occurrence of cases with a higher RR = 21.23 (P < 0.001) and four risk clusters for deaths with a higher RR = 80.33 (P < 0.001). These clusters were identified from 22 May and were active until 10 October 2020. The results indicate critical areas in the indigenous territories of Brazil and contribute to better directing the actions of control of COVID-19 in this population.
Developing health promotion activities, aimed at healthy food intake, is essential for improving quality of life and reducing the prevalence of chronic diseases. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe both dietary and nutrient intake, according to length of participation in a health promotion service (Programa Academia da Saúde – PAS).
A cross-sectional study was carried out with a representative sample of PAS units in vulnerable areas of the city. Dietary and nutrient intake were assessed, using the average of two 24-h recalls. Food was categorised according to the NOVA (a systematic grouping of all foods according to the nature, extent and purpose of the industrial processes they undergo) classification. The length of participation in PAS is presented in months and is then examined in tertiles for analysis.
Belo Horizonte – Brazil.
3372 adults (≥20 years).
Users in the third tertile of PAS (24·4–61·6 months) experienced less energy intake, lipids and ultra-processed foods, and more culinary preparations, compared to others. Users in the second (10·1–24·3 months) and third tertiles of PAS had higher carbohydrate intake, Ca and vitamin C v those in the first tertile (0–10 months).
Results suggest that greater participation in PAS can improve dietary and nutrient intake, showing its potential to promote healthy lifestyles, prevent chronic diseases and offer longitudinal health care.
Describing the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and their association with the nutritional profiles among users of a health promotion service in a Brazilian city.
Public health promotion service of Primary Health Care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Totally, 3372 participants.
UPF were found to contribute to 27·7 % of the diet’s total energy. The highest consumption was associated with higher values for energy intake (1561·8 v. 1331·8 kcal/d; P < 0·01), energy density (1·7 v. 1·4 kcal/g; P < 0·01), total (32·5 v. 27·3 %; P < 0·01) and trans-fats (2·1 v. 1·2 %; P < 0·01) and Na (1001·6 v. 758·9 mg/1000 kcal; P < 0·01) and with lower values for proteins (14·9 v. 19·6 %; P < 0·01), mono-unsaturated fats (16·1 v. 20·1 %; P = 0·02), n-3 (0·9 v. 1·1 %; P < 0·01) and some vitamins and minerals when comparing individuals in the last quintile of energy contribution from UPF in relation to the first one. The prevalence rate of nutrient inadequacy aimed at preventing non-communicable diseases increased between 30 % and 100 % when compared with the values of the fifth to the first quintile of UPF consumption (P < 0·001). However, the participants had lower energy intake, energy density and Na and higher fibre consumption when compared to Brazilian population.
Participants showed a high consumption of UPF, but also positive diet characteristics when compared with the national data. The results suggest the importance of health promotion services to promote healthy food and the need to include approaches to reduce UPF consumption.
Evidence suggests that maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. This study was aimed at assessing the association of maternal prepregnancy BMI with offspring cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence and adulthood. We also evaluated whether offspring BMI was a mediator in this association. The study included mother–offspring pairs from three Pelotas birth cohorts. Offspring cardiometabolic risk factors were collected in the last follow-up of each cohort [mean age (in years) 30.2, 22.6, 10.9]. Blood pressure was measured using an automatic device, cholesterol by using an enzymatic colorimetric method, and glucose from fingertip blood, using a portable glucose meter. In a pooled analysis of the cohorts, multiple linear regression was used to control for confounding. Mediation analysis was conducted using G-computation formula. In the adjusted model, mean systolic blood pressure of offspring from overweight and obese mothers was on average 1.25 (95% CI: 0.45; 2.05) and 2.13 (95% CI: 0.66; 3.59) mmHg higher than that of offspring from normal-weight mothers; for diastolic blood pressure, the means were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.26; 1.34) and 2.60 (95% CI: 1.62; 3.59) mmHg higher, respectively. Non-HDL cholesterol was positively associated with maternal BMI, whereas blood glucose was not associated. Mediation analyses showed that offspring BMI explained completely the association of maternal prepregnancy BMI with offspring systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and non-HDL cholesterol. Our findings suggest that maternal prepregnancy BMI is positively associated with offspring blood pressure, and blood lipids, and this association is explained by offspring BMI.
We investigated the effects of pathogens associated with subclinical intramammary infections on yield, composition and quality indicators of goat milk. By means of a longitudinal study, individual half udder milk samples (n = 132) were collected at different lactation periods and assessed for milk yield and physicochemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC) and microbiological culture. Staphylococci species accounted for the great majority of the isolates (96.1%). Intramammary infections significantly reduced fat and total solids in goat milk and increased both SCC and TBC. However, these indicators were significantly higher in udder halves affected by S. aureus compared with other staphylococci species.
Temperature may regulate seed dormancy and germination and determine the geographical distribution of species. The present study investigated the thermal limits for seed germination of Polygonum ferrugineum (Polygonaceae), an aquatic emergent herb distributed throughout tropical and subtropical America. Seed germination responses to light and temperature were evaluated both before (control) and after stratification at 10, 15 and 20°C for 7, 14 and 28 d. Germination of control seeds was ~50% at 10 and 15°C, and they did not germinate from 20 to 30°C. The best stratification treatment was 7 d at 10°C, where seed germination was >76% in the dark for all temperatures, except at 30°C, and < 60% in light conditions. A thermal time approach was applied to the seed germination results. Base temperature (Tb) was 6.3°C for non-dormant seeds and optimal temperature (To) was 20.6°C, ceiling temperature (Tc (<50)) was 32.8°C, and thermal time requirement for 50% germination was 44.4°Cd. We concluded that a fraction of P. ferrugineum seeds is dormant, has a narrow thermal niche to germinate (10 and 15°C) and that cold stratification (10°C) alleviated dormancy and amplified the thermal range permissive for germination of the species. Consequently, P. ferrugineum is expected to occur in colder environments, for example, at high altitudes. Higher temperatures decrease the probabilities of alleviate dormancy and the ability of their seeds to germinate.
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the main pests of fruit, worldwide, and the use of population suppression method with low environmental impact is an increasingly strong requirement of the consumer market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral and natural films on the physical–chemical properties of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), cultivar Itália, and oviposition behaviour of C. capitata. Fruits were immersed in suspensions (100 and 200 g L−1) of mineral (kaolin Surround®WP, kaolin 607, kaolin 608, kaolin 611 and talc) and natural films (chitosan, cassava starch, potato starch and guar gum 5.0 g L−1) and distilled water (control). After drying, fruits were exposed to C. capitata pairs of males and females for 24 h in choice and non-choice tests; the number of punctures with and without eggs, eggs per fruit and behavioural response of fly to treated and untreated fruits were recorded. Results obtained in this study are promising, given the scientific evidence that films of mineral particles such as kaolin (Surround®, 607, 608 and 611) changed the firmness, luminosity, chroma and hue angle of grapes and reduced the oviposition of C. capitata. In addition, our results also showed that natural polymers do not deter C. capitata females, but rather seem to stimulate oviposition.
Human ascariasis is the most common and prevalent neglected tropical disease and is estimated that ~819 million people are infected around the globe, accounting for 0.861 million years of disability-adjusted life years in 2017. Even with the existence of highly effective drugs, the constant presence of infective parasite eggs in the environment contribute to a high reinfection rate after treatment. Due to its high prevalence and broad geographic distribution Ascaris infection is associated with a variety of co-morbidities and co-infections. Here, we provide data from both experimental models and humans studies that illustrate how complex is the interaction of Ascaris with the host immune system, especially, in the context of reinfections, co-infections and associated co-morbidities.
This work presents the results of the physical characterization of palygorskite and its adsorptive behaviour for three solvatochromic dyes (Nile blue chloride (NBC), methylene blue (MTB) and dithizone (DTZ)). Adsorption isotherms were used to determine the maximum adsorption of the solvatochromic dyes on the palygorskite. The characterization of palygorskite was carried out via mineralogical and chemical analysis with X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, surface-charge measurement (ζ-potential), thermogravimetric analysis, textural analysis and cation-exchange capacity analysis. The material consists of palygorskite and quartz and its chemistry is dominated by SiO2, MgO and Fe2O3. The specific surface area and cation-exchange capacity of the palygorskite are 142 m2 g–1 and 41 cmol(+) kg–1, respectively. The SEM and TEM analyses showed a fibrous structure with fibres 20–100 nm long. The thermogravimetric analysis showed three endothermic events at 57.3°C, 171.8°C and 439.6°C. The adsorption capacities of the palygorskite for NBC (basic pH), MTB (basic pH) and DTZ (neutral pH) were 0.082, 0.013 and 0.102 g g–1, respectively. The adsorptions of NBC and MTB were fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model and the adsorption of DTZ was fitted with the Sips model.
The objective of this study was to analyse the dynamics of spatial dispersion of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil by correlating them to socioeconomic indicators. This is an ecological study of COVID-19 cases and deaths between 26 February and 31 July 2020. All Brazilian counties were used as units of analysis. The incidence, mortality, Bayesian incidence and mortality rates, global and local Moran indices were calculated. A geographic weighted regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 and socioeconomic indicators (independent variables). There were confirmed 2 662 485 cases of COVID-19 reported in Brazil from February to July 2020 with higher rates of incidence in the north and northeast. The Moran global index of incidence rate (0.50, P = 0.01) and mortality (0.45 with P = 0.01) indicate a positive spatial autocorrelation with high standards in the north, northeast and in the largest urban centres between cities in the southeast region. In the same period, there were 92 475 deaths from COVID-19, with higher mortality rates in the northern states of Brazil, mainly Amazonas, Pará and Amapá. The results show that there is a geospatial correlation of COVID-19 in large urban centres and regions with the lowest human development index in the country. In the geographic weighted regression, it was possible to identify that the percentage of people living in residences with density higher than 2 per dormitory, the municipality human development index (MHDI) and the social vulnerability index were the indicators that most contributed to explaining incidence, social development index and the municipality human development index contributed the most to the mortality model. We hope that the findings will contribute to reorienting public health responses to combat COVID-19 in Brazil, the new epicentre of the disease in South America, as well as in other countries that have similar epidemiological and health characteristics to those in Brazil.