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A number of multiple-casualty incidents during 2014 and 2015 brought changes to Korea’s disaster medical assistance system. We report these changes here.
Reports about these incidents, revisions to laws, and the government’s revised medical disaster response guidelines were reviewed.
The number of DMAT (Disaster Medical Assistance Team) staff members was reduced to 4 from 8, and the mobilization method changed. An emergency response manual was created that contains the main content of the DMAT, and there is now a DMAT training program to educate staff. The government created and launched a national 24-hour Disaster Emergency Medical Service Situation Room, and instead of the traditional wireless communications, mobile instant smart phone messaging has been added as a new means of communication. The number of disaster base hospitals has also been doubled.
Although there are still limitations that need to be remedied, the changes to the current emergency medical assistance system are expected to improve the system’s response capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:526–530)
We demonstrate the tungsten disulfide (WS2) thin film catalysts prepared by the sulfurization of vacuum deposited WO3 thin films for efficient hydrogen production with over 90% Faradaic efficiency. The 23-nm-thick WS2 thin film catalyst heterojunction with p-type silicon photocathode could exhibit a photocurrent density of 8.3 mA/cm2 at 0 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), a low onset potential of 0.2 V versus RHE when photocurrent density reaches −1 mA/cm2 and long-term stability over 10 h. The enhanced catalytic activities of WS2/p-Si photocathodes compared with the bare p-Si photocathode originate from a number of edge sites in the synthesized polycrystalline thin films, which could act as hydrogen evolution catalyst.
is a commutative semigroup and
is an involution. Also, we find the Lebesgue measurable solutions
of the above functional equation, where
is a Lebesgue measurable involution. As a direct consequence, we obtain the Lebesgue measurable solutions
of the classical d’Alembert functional equation
Cultivated soybeans [Glycinemax (L.) Merr.] have various flower colours such as dark purple, purple, light purple, pink, magenta, near white and white. About one-third of the soybean accessions in the United States Department of Agriculture – Germplasm Resource Information Network (USDA-GRIN) Soybean Germplasm Collections have white flowers and are the second dominant accessions after the purple-flowered accessions. Earlier studies have shown that the w1 recessive allele of the W1 gene encoding flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase produces white flowers. In the present study, we aimed to understand why the white-flowered accessions have become abundant among the cultivated soybeans and what their genetic and regional origin is. For this purpose, 99 landraces with white flowers and 39 landraces with purple flowers from eight Asian countries and Russia were analysed with regard to the nucleotide sequences of the W1 locus. We not only found that the w1 alleles of the 99 white-flowered landraces were identical to those of the white-flowered Williams 82, but also found that these w1 alleles displayed no polymorphism at all. By carrying out a phylogenetic analysis, we were able to identify a group with W1 alleles from which the w1 allele might have diverged.
The study's aim was to examine the association of alcohol consumption with verbal and visuospatial memory impairment in older people.
Participants were 1,572, aged ≥60 years, in the hospital-based registry of the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS). Moderate drinking was defined as no more than seven drinks per week and three drinks per day. Memory impairment was defined as performance with more than 1 standard deviation below the mean value on the Seoul Verbal Learning Test and Rey Complex Figure Test.
Those who consumed alcohol moderately, compared with abstainers, had a lower odds of verbal memory impairment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.64; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.46–0.87), adjusting for covariates. Visuospatial memory, however, was not significantly associated with alcohol consumption.
Moderate alcohol drinking is associated with a reduced likelihood of verbal memory impairment among older people attending memory clinics.
Several reports have indicated that dietary intake of DHA is associated with lower prevalence of periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHA on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotellaintermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated from lyophilised P. intermedia ATCC 25 611 cells using the standard hot-phenol–water protocol. Culture supernatants were collected and assayed for NO, IL-1β and IL-6. Real-time PCR analysis was carried out to detect the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to quantify the expression of iNOS and HO-1 protein and concentrations of signalling proteins. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based assay kit. DHA significantly attenuated the production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. DHA induced the expression of HO-1 in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS. Selective inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX significantly mitigated the inhibitory effects of DHA on LPS-induced NO production. DHA significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase induced by LPS. In addition, DHA suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-κB by regulating the nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Further in vivo studies are needed to better evaluate the potential of DHA in humans as a therapeutic agent to treat periodontal disease.
This paper presents the design of an eight-element 60 GHz phased-array receiver chip with interference mitigation capability, fabricated in 0.25 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. Each receiver element contains a low noise amplifier (LNA) and a vector-modulator that supports high-resolution amplitude and phase control. A fully differential power combining network follows the eight elements. The chip also includes an active power divider, a down conversion mixer, and fully integrated 48 GHz PLL to demonstrate the IF down-conversion. With LNA, a phase shifter and hybrid active and passive power combining network, each receiver path achieves 18 dB of gain, 360° phase shift in steps less than 3°, 20 dB amplitude control, and 4 GHz 3 dB-bandwidth and input referred 1 dB compression point P1 dB of each element is of −22 dBm. Each receiver element dissipates in total 132 mW. The phased-array receiver shows more than 25 dB of signal to interference noise ratio, by means of amplitude and phase control.
We report the microstructural features of GdBa2Cu3O7-δ (GdBCO) coated conductors (CCs) on LaMnO3 (LMO)-buffered IBAD MgO template, produced by the Reactive Co-Evaporation Deposition & Reaction (RCE-DR) process. Analysis results by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that a lot of elongated round second phase particles of 70-150nm size within the GdBCO matrix were the Gd2O3 phase, a small amount of Cu-O phase were also trapped in the GdBCO matrix, and a thick layer of Cu-excessive Ba-Cu-O phase was found on the top surface of the GdBCO film, suggesting that the GdBCO film might be grown from Gd2O3 and liquid phase by a peritectic recombination. While both the GdBCO film and some Gd2O3 particles grown on the LMO-buffer layer were biaxially textured, the Gd2O3 particles fully trapped in the GdBCO matrix were randomly oriented. The Gd2O3 particles located at the interface between the GdBCO and LMO buffer layer exhibited the following crystallographic orientation relationship: LMO  // GdBCO  // Gd2O3 ; LMO  // GdBCO  // Gd2O3 .
The effect of wet chemical treatment on the magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) was examined. The tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) increased and the resistance of anti-parallel state and parallel state decreased when a wet cleaning treatment was carried out after a reactive ion etching process. Furthermore, the exfoliation between the capping layer and Inter layer Dielectric (ILD) was prevented. Presumably, these were due to the elimination of the damaged layer and the residues. This investigation showed that the wet treatment after the MTJ patterning using RIE process could improve the MTJ properties without degradation of Hc, such as TMR and Rlow.
We investigated microstructures, compositional distributions, and electrical properties of dielectric CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates from 700 to 800 °C by pulsed laser deposition. With increasing the deposition temperature from 700 to 750 °C, the dielectric constants (εr) of CCTO films were greatly enhanced from ∼300 to ∼2000 at 10 kHz, respectively. However, the εr values of CCTO films were gradually decreased above 750 °C, which was surely attributable to the formation of a TiO2-rich dead layer at the interface between CCTO and Pt electrode. Compositional analyses by Auger electron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that the TiO2-rich dead layer became thicker because of severe Cu diffusion from CCTO films to Pt electrode. The leakage current behaviors of CCTO films are in good agreement with Poole–Frenkel conduction mechanism, where both the TiO2-rich dead layer and rutile TiO2 nanocrystalline particles are considered to play a role of charge trapping centers.
Undifferentiated stem cells may support a greater development of cloned embryos compared with differentiated cell types due to their ease of reprogramming during the nuclear transfer (NT) process. Hence, stem cells may be more suitable as nuclear donor cells for NT procedures than are somatic cells. Embryonic germ (EG) cells are undifferentiated stem cells that are isolated from cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) and can differentiate into several cell types. In this study, the in vitro development of NT embryos using porcine EG cells and their derivative neural precursor (NP) cells was investigated, thus eliminating any variation in genetic differences. The rates of fusion did not differ between NT embryos from EG and NP cells; however, the rate of cleavage in NT embryos derived from EG cells was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that from NP cells (141/247 [57.1%] vs. 105/228 [46.1%]). Similarly, the rate of blastocyst development was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in NT using EG cells than the rate using NP cells (43/247 [17.4%] vs. 18/228 [7.9%]). The results obtained from the present study in pigs demonstrate a reduced capability for nuclear donor cells to be reprogrammed following the differentiation of porcine EG cells. Undifferentiated EG cells may be more amenable to reprogramming after reconstruction compared with differentiated somatic cells.
A fully integrated transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) front-end chipset, produced in 0.25 µm SiGe:C bipolar and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) technology, is presented. The front-end is intended for high-speed wireless communication in the unlicensed ISM band of 9 GHz around 60 GHz. The TXand RX features a modified heterodyne topology with a sliding intermediate frequency. The TX features a 12 GHz in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) mixer, an intermediate frequency (IF) amplifier, a phase-locked loop, a 60 GHz mixer, an image-rejection filter, and a power amplifier. The RX features a low-noise amplifier (LNA), a 60 GHz mixer, a phase-locked loop (PLL), and an IF demodulator. The measured 1-dB compression point at the TX output is 12.6 dBm and the saturated power is 16.2 dBm. The LNA has measured noise figure of 6.5 dB at 60 GHz. Error-free data transmission with a 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal and data rate of 3.6 Gbit/s (without coding 4.8 Gbit/s) over 15 m was demonstrated. This is the best reported result regarding both the data rate and transmission distance in SiGe and CMOS without beamforming.
This paper gives an overview of frequency regulation, standardization, and applications of 60 GHz communication systems. Based on forecasted developments of mobile IP traffic, the motivation for investigating circuits, and systems for the 60 GHz band is underlined. Some physical properties of 60 GHz radio waves are outlined and implications on potential applications are sketched. The current international and European frequency regulation aspects are presented. The main parameters of three different international standards are summarized and compared with each other. Details of channel spacing and channel bonding are given. Based on the investigation of different applications, the main system requirements are derived. Finally, some information on protocol issues and system integration aspects are given.
During the plasma etching of Al-Si-Cu alloy used as a metal interconnection, it is generally reported that the metal pillar (or conical residue) affecting the degradation of device yield is formed by the micromasking effect of copper compound. However, it is stilldisputed with the formation mechanism and composition of the micromasking material. Moreover, the elimination method of the metal pillar is not well known.
According to previous reports, it is argued that the micromasking material consists of Cu agglomerates, A12Cu, or CuC1, and the formation mechanism of the micromasking is due to byproduct during plasma etching or reaction product during metal depositionor etching. However, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive of x-ray (EDX), and high resolution Auger spectroscopy (HRAES), it is newly found that the micromasking consists of three layered structure, that is copper aluminum oxide, A12Cu, and Cu agglomerates. These results are quite different from previous reports. In addition, the removal methods of the metal pillar are suggested, which are high power dry etch process and multilayered metal deposition.
An amorphized tungsten nitride diffusion barrier is compared with that of polycrystalline tungsten nitride preventing the diffusion of copper into Si during post annealing processes at 600 – 800 °C for 30 min. Experimental evidence such as RBS, TEM, XRD measurements shows that the amorphized tungsten nitride layer perfectly blocks the expeditious diffusion of the Cu film due to the amorphous grain boundaries stuffed with N impurities.
For using as separative membranes based on magnetic selectivity, nanoporous ferrimagnetic membranes of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and cobalt ferrite (Fe2CoO4) were prepared by the sol-gel route from ferrofluid colloidal solutions. Their magnetic properties were examined by superconductor quantum interference device (SQUID), and their structures and porous textures were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analyses. O2-N2 adsorption and air separation experiments were carried out in order to evidence magnetic interactions in static and dynamic conditions, respectively. A small effect of an external magnetic field on the selectivity of these membranes was observed.
The interests of low-k dielectric materials to reduce capacitance in multilevel metal interconnects of integrated circuits are well known in the semiconductor industry. Mechanical properties of low-k film are currently the main issues. Improved hardness and modulus are desirable because, when building a multilayered stack and doing sequential processing, films go through chemical mechanical planarization. In this proceeding, we reports the Young's moduli of the typical low k materials, and the effects of various factors for Young's moduli of materials, such as, structures of precursors, density, and porosity. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulation with experimental measurements, the Young's moduli of films of amorphous silicon oxide in which 25% of Si-O-Si chains were replaced by Si-(CH3 H3C)-Si, Si-CH2-Si, Si-(CH2)2-Si, Si-(CH2)3-Si, Si-(CH2)4-Si, Si-(CH2)6-Si, were measured and analyzed. The predicted trends of Young's moduli of films formed by above precursors are in good consistent with those observed from experiments. The Young's moduli of materials are largely dependent on the densities of materials. Young's modulus of material increases as the density of the material increases. The chemical properties, chain length, and connectivity of material take effects on the Young's modulus of material. Given the same densities of material the smaller number of cavities per unit volume the material has, the lower Young's modulus it shows. Based on the results, the method of predict mechanical properties of materials by the conjunction of basic experimental measurements and atomistic simulation will be discussed.
p-i-n heterostructured quantum-dot electroluminescence (QD-EL) device was fabricated by soft-chemical process, which shows a low turn-on voltage comparable to OLEDs. To construct the multilayered device structure, p-type polymer semiconductor was deposited on the ITO glass by sequential process of coating and thermal curing, thereupon a few monolayers of QD was spin-coated. n-type metal-oxide film was deposited on top of the QD luminescence layer by sol-gel method, providing a facile and low-cost route for the ETL fabrication. Prior to solution-processed ETL construction, a post-treatment is performed using cross-linking agent, in order to chemically-immobilize the QDs. As a cathodic electrode, relatively air-stable aluminum was deposited. The constituent material as well as the electronic band structure of the integrated device guarantees operating stability in air and low turn-on voltage.
In the thin film transistor fabrication process, tin doped indium oxide (ITO) or zinc doped indium oxide (IZO) film can be easily exposed to hydrogen-containing plasma during the deposition of silicon nitride (SiNx) film. By this exposure, ITO or IZO can be easily reduced into its corresponding metallic element such as indium, which degrades the optical transmittance and the conductivity. In this study, SiNx was deposited onto ITO or IZO film, and the oxygen reduction of ITO or IZO during PECVD SiNx deposition was analyzed to clarify this phenomenon. The oxygen reduction during PECVD SiNx deposition is mainly induced by decomposed NH3 gas. However, the progress of ITO reduction is different from that of IZO reduction, due to the different atomic composition of In2O3 in the composite and the different critical temperature of reduction initiation between indium oxide, tin oxide, and zinc oxide.