To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A 5G new radio cellular system is characterized by three main usage scenarios of enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC), and massive machine type communications, which require improved throughput, latency, and reliability compared with a 4G system. This overview paper discusses key characteristics of 5G channel coding schemes which are mainly designed for the eMBB scenario as well as for partial support of the URLLC scenario focusing on low latency. Two capacity-achieving channel coding schemes of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and polar codes have been adopted for 5G where the former is for user data and the latter is for control information. As a coding scheme for data, 5G LDPC codes are designed to support high throughput, a variable code rate and length and hybrid automatic repeat request in addition to good error correcting capability. 5G polar codes, as a coding scheme for control, are designed to perform well with short block length while addressing a latency issue of successive cancellation decoding.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern because of the high mortality rate of young people and a high proportion among the trauma. According to studies, patients visiting the emergency department (ED) with TBI comprise 1.4% of all ED patients.
The authors think that the characteristics of patients with TBI will vary according to the age group. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and social characteristics of patients with TBI visiting the ED by age group.
Trauma patients who conducted brain CT at the ED of Korean University Hospital (three hospitals) for 3 years from March 2013 to February 2016 were enrolled. Medical records were investigated retrospectively. The GCS scores were estimated at initial ED arrival. The primary outcome was to determine the characteristics of each age groups with gender, severity (by GSC score), trauma mechanism, and admission rate.
A total of 15,567 TBI patients received brain CT evaluation during the investigation period. Based on age, patients in their 50s were the most common (16.5%). Regarding the severity, the ratio of mild was higher in under patients under 9 (99.3%); the ratio of severe was higher for patients in their 20s (4.6%). In almost every age group, the male ratio of TBI was higher, except for females aged 70 or older. Under 19 years of age, the ambulance utilization rate was lower than any other age group. The most common injury mechanism was a collision, the next was a traffic accident, and in under 9, a fall was the most common. 70.1% of patients returned home after treatments.
Identifying the characteristics of patients with TBI visiting ED is fundamental. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously collect basic data on TBI among patients visiting the ED.
While much research has focused on crop damage following foliar exposure to auxin herbicides, reports documenting the risk posed by exposure via root uptake of irrigation water are lacking. Herbicide residues circulated in tailwater recovery systems may pose threats of cross-crop impacts to nonresistant cultivars with known sensitivity to auxins. An auxin-susceptible soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivar was grown in a controlled growth chamber environment and exposed to dicamba dissolved in irrigation water applied to the soil surface, simulating furrow irrigation. Five herbicide treatment concentrations, ranging from 0.05 to 5.0 mg L−1 and encompassing estimated field doses of 3.1 to 310g ha−1, were applied to the soil of potted soybean plants at V3/V4 or R1 growth stages. Plant injury (0% to 100%), dry mass, height, number of pods, and number of pod-bearing nodes were measured. Kruskal-Wallis and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine treatment differences and examine dose effects. Yield losses were projected using (1) 14 d after treatment plant injury assessments based on injury–yield relationships described for foliar exposures and (2) pod counts. Dicamba concentration was the main significant factor affecting all growth response metrics, and growth stage was a significant explanatory variable only for the height response metric. A nonlinear response to dicamba dose was observed, with the threshold response dose required to affect 50% of plants being three times greater for 40% crop injury compared with 20% injury. Yield projections derived from plant response to root uptake compared with foliar exposure indicate that soybean may express both magnitude of injury and specific symptomology differently when exposure occurs via root uptake. Drift exposure–based models may be incompatible to predict soybean yield loss when injury results from irrigation. Data are needed to develop correlations for predicting yield losses based on field-scale exposure to dicamba in irrigation water, as well as assessment of real-world concentrations of herbicide residues in tailwater recovery systems.
Curiosity and situational interest are powerful driving forces in learning and motivation that lead students to learn more effectively. In this chapter, we elucidate curiosity and situational interest by focusing on (1) conceptual definitions and characteristics, (2) antecedents, (3) cognitive and behavioral outcomes, and (4) strategies to foster them in school. Curiosity is a short-lasting, aversive state that desires an acquisition of specific information. Its properties contrast with those of situational interest, which is an overall positive affect and a general preference for a topic. Whereas curiosity and situational interest are stimulated by similar contextual features (such as collative variables), triggering curiosity requires one to perceive an information gap between what one knows and what one wants to know. Despite these differences, ample evidence displays that both curiosity and situational interest positively impact students’ learning, motivation, creativity, and well-being once triggered. Thus, in closing, integrative and specific pedagogical guidelines to enhance students’ curiosity and situational interest in education practice are suggested.
Yarn-type supercapacitors should have high energy density in small given spaces, and the one attempt among many is to comprise the electrodes asymmetrically. However, the low capacitance of conventional materials causes the widened operating voltage useless. In this study, we have utilized a novel material MXene with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to make highly loaded MXene/CNT yarn electrodes, which exhibited a remarkable areal capacitance. With MnO2/CNT biscrolled cathode and PVA/LiCl gel electrolyte, the plied asymmetric yarn supercapacitor had energy density of 100 µWh/cm2. The yarn supercapacitor could operate under mechanical deformations without performance degradation.
Given that only a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia responds to first-line antipsychotic drugs, a key clinical question is what underlies treatment response. Observations that prefrontal activity correlates with striatal dopaminergic function, have led to the hypothesis that disrupted frontostriatal functional connectivity (FC) could be associated with altered dopaminergic function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frontostriatal FC and striatal dopamine synthesis capacity in patients with schizophrenia who had responded to first-line antipsychotic drug compared with those who had failed but responded to clozapine.
Twenty-four symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia were recruited from Seoul National University Hospital, 12 of which responded to first-line antipsychotic drugs (first-line AP group) and 12 under clozapine (clozapine group), along with 12 matched healthy controls. All participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]DOPA PET scans.
No significant difference was found in the total PANSS score between the patient groups. Voxel-based analysis showed a significant correlation between frontal FC to the associative striatum and the influx rate constant of [18F]DOPA in the corresponding region in the first-line AP group. Region-of-interest analysis confirmed the result (control group: R2 = 0.019, p = 0.665; first-line AP group: R2 = 0.675, p < 0.001; clozapine group: R2 = 0.324, p = 0.054) and the correlation coefficients were significantly different between the groups.
The relationship between striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and frontostriatal FC is different between responders to first-line treatment and clozapine treatment in schizophrenia, indicating that a different pathophysiology could underlie schizophrenia in patients who respond to first-line treatments relative to those who do not.
To determine the effectiveness of a workplace wellness programme intervention in improving participants’ behaviour towards choosing a healthy diet and the correlation with health indicators.
A retrospective cohort study.
Wellness programme in the Midwest, USA.
Employees (n 12 636) who participated in a wellness programme for three consecutive years during years 2004 to 2013 and who completed web-based health risk questionnaires. The wellness programme included annual health screening, laboratory measures, health risk questionnaire and personalized health-care programme. Participants’ food group intakes, BMI and health indicators were compared between the first and last year of participation. McNemar’s non-parametric test was used for paired nominal data. Pearson correlations were computed for paired food and health indicator measurements. Correlations between dietary intake and BMI, cholesterol and TAG were computed using Pearson correlations and McNemar’s test.
There were negative correlations between intakes of fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, healthy eating pattern and health outcome indicators such as BMI and TAG levels. Additionally, the percentage of employees who increased their consumption of fruits (16·88 v. 12·08 %, P<0·001), vegetables (15·20 v. 11·44 %, P<0·001) and dark green leafy vegetables (12·03 v. 7·27 %, P 0·001) was significantly higher than the percentage of participants who decreased their intake of these food groups during the third-year follow-up.
The wellness programme improved some health indicator parameters and had a positive impact on increasing participants’ intakes of fruits, vegetables and whole grains at the third year of follow-up.
This study adopted mixed-methods research to explore the effects of reminiscing about nostalgic smells on the physiological and psychological responses of older people in long-term care facilities. A total of 60 participants were randomly divided into two groups and each participant was either interviewed regarding their reminiscence about nostalgic smells (experimental group) or were engaged in daily conversation (control group). The results indicated that anxiety and depression symptoms were more effectively relieved in the experimental group than in the control group. Moreover, most of the nostalgic smells recalled by the experimental group were associated with naturally occurring smells. Regarding heart rate variability, the normalised low-frequency of the experimental group decreased significantly. The results verified the utility of using reminiscence about olfactory memories in reminiscence therapy as this can calm anxiety and lessen depression, which can be very important for older adults living in long-term care facilities.
To critically evaluate the relevance of social exchange theory (SET) to the contemporary workplace, Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu (2018) point out a number of factors that reshape work relationships and suggest how to apply and extend social exchange theory to understand the new era work relationships. However, in their discussion, they focus mainly on reciprocal exchange (RE) in dyadic relationships. The discussion completely overlooks another important form of social exchange, namely, generalized exchange (GE), which is increasingly relevant to contemporary organizations exactly because of the changes indicated by Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu. In this commentary, we briefly review prior investigations into GE across various social science disciplines and then point out its increasing relevance to organizations. Finally, we will discuss implications for future research in the industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology literature.
To understand low-income adults’ expectations and experiences using an innovative smartphone and theory-based eLearning nutrition education programme, entitled Food eTalk.
Longitudinal mixed-methods single case study including a series of focus group and individual interviews, demographic and Internet habits surveys, and user-tracking data. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, analysed using the constant comparative method and digitalized using Atlas.ti. Descriptive statistics were analysed for demographics and user-tracking data.
Community-based locations including libraries, public housing complexes, schools, safety-net clinics and food pantries.
Low-income Georgian adults aged ≥18 years (n 64), USA.
Participants found Food eTalk easy to navigate and better designed than expected. Primary themes were twofold: (i) motivation to engage in eLearning may be a formidable barrier to Food eTalk’s success but improved programme content, format and external incentives could mitigate this barrier; and (ii) applying knowledge to change nutrition-related behaviour is challenging. To encourage engagement in eLearning nutrition education, programme format should highlight interactive games, videos, be short in length, and feature content that is relevant and important from the perspective of the priority audience. Examples of these topics include quick and easy recipes, chronic disease-specific diet information and tips to feed ‘picky’ children. Additionally, external incentives may help mitigate barriers to healthful eating behaviour and increase engagement in the programme.
The findings suggest eLearning nutrition education programmes are best designed to match low-income adults’ typical smartphone habits, include content considered particularly relevant by the intended audience and highlight solutions to barriers to healthful eating.
We have derived the universal eikonal-Glauber Thomas–Fermi model for atomic collision cross-sections with many-electron atoms, such as iron and tungsten atoms, including the influence of atomic screening in fusion devices and plasma technologies. The eikonal-Glauber method is employed to obtain the analytic expressions for the effective atomic charge, the scattering phase shift and the atomic cross-section in terms of the atomic form factor and the Mott–Massey screening parameter. The result shows that the effective atomic charge would be the same as the case of the net nuclear charge for the large momentum transfer domain and becomes zero without momentum transfer due to the influence of bound atomic electrons. It is shown that the eikonal scattering phase shift and the total eikonal-Glauber scattering cross-section increase with increasing charge number
of the nucleus of the target atom. It is also found that the charge dependence of the total eikonal-Glauber scattering cross-section decreases with an increase of the scaled collision energy since the atomic form factor is small for large collision energies.
An index of biomarkers derived from dietary factors (diet–biomarker-related index) identifies foods and nutrients that encompass physiological potentials and provides scientific evidence for dietary patterns that increase the risk of disease associated with specific biomarkers. Although men and women have different dietary patterns and physiological characteristics, sex is not often considered when investigators develop a diet–biomarker-related index. We aimed to review whether epidemiological studies developed diet–biomarker-related indices in a sex-specific way.
We systematically searched for epidemiological studies that developed diet–biomarker-related indices, including (i) biomarker prediction indices that include dietary factors as explanatory variables and (ii) dietary patterns to explain biomarker variations, in the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We qualitatively reviewed the sex consideration in index development.
We identified seventy-nine studies that developed a diet–biomarker-related index. We found that fifty-four studies included both men and women. Of these fifty-four studies, twenty-nine (53·7 %) did not consider sex, eleven (20·3 %) included sex in the development model, seven (13·0 %) considered sex but did not include sex in the development model, and seven (13·0 %) derived a diet–biomarker-related index for men and women separately. A list of selected dietary factors that explained levels of biomarkers generally differed by sex in the studies that developed a diet–biomarker-related index in a sex-specific way.
Most studies that included both men and women did not develop the diet–biomarker-related index in a sex-specific way. Further research is needed to identify whether a sex-specific diet–biomarker-related index is more predictive of the disease of interest than an index without sex consideration.
Background: Research to date has focused on the detrimental effects of negative self-images for individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), but the benefits of positive self-images have been neglected. Aims: The present study examined the effect of holding a positive versus negative self-image in mind on anxiety, judgement bias and emotion regulation (ER) in individuals with SAD. Method: Forty-two individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for SAD were randomly assigned to either a positive or a negative self-image group. Participants were assessed twice with a week's interval in between using the Reactivity and Regulation Situation Task, which measures social anxiety, discomfort, judgement bias and ER, prior to and after the inducement of a positive or negative self-image. Results: Individuals in the positive self-image group reported less social anxiety, discomfort and distress from social cost when compared with their pre-induction state. They also used more adaptive ER strategies and experienced less anxiety and discomfort after using ER. In contrast, individuals in the negative self-image group showed no significant differences in anxiety, judgement bias or ER strategies before and after the induction. Conclusions: This study highlights the beneficial effects of positive self-images on social anxiety and ER.