Schistosoma mansoni is the most common species causing schistosomiasis. It has a complex life cycle involving a vertebrate definitive host and a snail intermediate host of the genus Biomphalaria. Each stage encounters a plethora of environmental stresses specially heat stress. Another sort of stress arises from repeated exposure of the parasite to praziquantel (PZQ), the only drug used for treatment, which leads to the development of resistance in the fields and the labs. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is found in different developmental stages of S. mansoni. It is immunogenic and regulate cercarial invasion besides its chaperone function. In the Biomphalaria/S. mansoni interaction, epigenetic modulations of the Hsp70 gene underscore the susceptibility phenotype of the snail. Hsp70 is up-regulated in adult S. mansoni with decreased sensitivity to PZQ. This could be due to the induction of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, induction of apoptosis, exposure to the stressful drug pressure and increase influx of calcium ions. Up-regulation of Hsp70 might help the worm to survive the schistosomicidal effect of the drug mainly by dealing with misfolded proteins, inhibition of apoptosis, induction of autophagy, up-regulation of the P-glycoprotein transporter and attenuation of the signalling from G protein coupled receptors.