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To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a beverage intervention in Hispanic adults.
Eligible individuals identified as Hispanic, were 18–64 years old and had BMI 30·0–50·0 kg/m2. Participants were randomized 2:2:1 to one of three beverages: Mediterranean lemonade (ML), green tea (GT) or flavoured water control (FW). After a 2-week washout period, participants were asked to consume 32 oz (946 ml) of study beverage daily for 6 weeks and avoid other sources of tea, citrus, juice and sweetened beverages; water was permissible. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and 8 weeks to assess primary and secondary efficacy outcomes.
Tucson, AZ, USA.
Fifty-two participants were recruited over 6 months; fifty were randomized (twenty-one ML, nineteen GT, ten FW). Study population mean (sd) age 44·6 (sd 10·2) years, BMI 35·9 (4·6) kg/m2; 78 % female.
Forty-four (88 %) completed the 8-week assessment. Self-reported adherence was high. No significant change (95 % CI) in total cholesterol (mg/dl) from baseline was shown −1·7 (−14·2, 10·9), −3·9 (−17·2, 9·4) and −13·2 (−30·2, 3·8) for ML, GT and FW, respectively. Mean change in HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) −2·3 (−5·3, 0·7; ML), −1·0 (−4·2, 2·2; GT), −3·9 (−8·0, 0·2; FW) and LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 0·2 (−11·3, 11·8; ML), 0·5 (−11·4, 12·4; GT), −9·8 (−25·0, 5·4; FW) were also non-significant. Fasting glucose (mg/dl) increased significantly by 5·2 (2·6, 7·9; ML) and 3·3 (0·58, 6·4; GT). No significant change in HbA1c was demonstrated. Due to the small sample size, potential confounders and effect modifiers were not investigated.
Recruitment and retention figures indicate that a larger-scale trial is feasible; however, favourable changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers were not demonstrated.
The study aimed to detail the lifestyle (physical activity and dietary habits) of Moroccan adolescents.
Cross-sectional study undertaken in the framework of the ATLS (Arab Teens Lifestyle Study).
Physical activity and dietary habits were determined using a validated questionnaire in public secondary schools.
A total of 669 adolescents aged 15·0–19·9 years were randomly recruited from Kenitra, Morocco.
Physical activity patterns and intensity differed between genders. As anticipated, male adolescents were more active than female adolescents across a typical week and engaged in more vigorous-intensity physical activity than female adolescents, who spent more time than male adolescents in moderate-intensity physical activity. Of particular concern was that one in five of the adolescents surveyed was inactive, with almost 45 % of the sample reporting television viewing for more than 2 h/d and 38 % engaged in computer use for a similar period. From a dietary perspective, most adolescents reported that they do not take breakfast or consume milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables on a daily basis. In contrast, most reported consumption of doughnuts, cakes, candy and chocolate more than three times per week and approximately 50 % consumed sugary drinks more than three times per week.
Based on a continuation of the self-reported lifestyle behaviours, adolescents in the present study are at risk of developing chronic diseases. Education programmes are urgently needed to assist in the promotion of a healthy lifestyle and reduce the likelihood of overweight and obesity and related health risks among young people.
Increasing recognition of the potential importance of phytochemicals in the aetiology of cancer and heart diseases has highlighted the need for methods to measure individual phytochemical consumption that are sufficiently simple to be used in large epidemiological studies and whose reproducibility and accuracy have been quantified. D-Limonene is a natural component of a variety of foods and beverages and is found mainly in citrus fruits. However, D-limonene is not assessed by any nationally available analysis database.
We designed our study to assess the D-limonene content of different citrus juices and beverages and to develop a dietary assessment instrument to measure consumption of citrus foods (fruit, juice and peel) and D-limonene intake and test it for reliability.
Subjects and methods:
A total of 120 citrus juice samples were analysed and used to develop the preliminary D-limonene database. A self-administered citrus food-frequency questionnaire was developed and administered twice to participants, separated by a 2-month interval. The questionnaire was tested for reproducibility of estimates of citrus food consumption and D-limonene intake among 120 participants.
Correlation coefficients between the two administrations of the questionnaire ranged from 0.50 for citrus peel use to 0.82 for orange juice. Mean intakes (range) of D-limonene from citrus juices among consumers were 13.0 (0.24–141.9) mg day−1 and 13.2 (0.07–83.9) mg day−1 (r = 0.60, P < 0.001).
The citrus frequency questionnaire developed in this study provided highly reproducible estimates of citrus foods, citrus peel and D-limonene intakes. This instrument may be a useful tool in studies of the associations between citrus peel use, D-limonene intake and risk for chronic disease.
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