Thin layers of nanoporous silicon PS were synthesized by anodic etching, in order to develop photovoltaic cells. We proposed a diluted concentration of hydrofluoric acid with different etching current densities (1, 3, 5 mA/cm2) on a fairly short time anodization. Observations by scanning electron microscope, electrical measurements and optical measurements revealed that the structural properties of PS layers depended on strong conditions of prints. The reverse and forward component of the I-V characteristics showed an appropriate method to explore and extract the parameters of the diode ideality factor n. The optimum conditions of formation of PS were: HF concentration of 1% and an etching current density of mA/cm2. Unlike silicon, which has a low absorption of short visible wavelengths, it was shown that the PS had wide energy gap of ≈ 2 eV, and a marked improvement in the absorption between 400 and 600 nm. This property has been used to optimize the response of the solar cell Ni/PS/c-Si. Efficiency performance close to 4.2% was obtained with a Voc of 400 mV, and fill factor of 46%. The solar cell exhibited better response than the reference cell Ni/c-Si. These results show that PS/c-Si heterojunction has a potential for photovoltaic applications.