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According to most prospective studies, being underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2) is associated with significantly higher mortality than being of normal weight, especially among smokers. We aimed to explore in a generally lean population whether being underweight is significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality.
Prospective cohort study.
Korea Medical Insurance Corporation study with 14 years of follow-up.
After excluding deaths within the first 5 years of follow-up (1993–1997) to minimize reverse causation and excluding participants without information about smoking and health status, 94 133 men and 48 496 women aged 35–59 years in 1990 were included.
We documented 5411 (5·7 %) deaths in men and 762 (1·6 %) in women. Among never smokers, hazard ratios (HR) for underweight individuals were not significantly higher than those for normal-weight individuals (BMI=18·5–22·9 kg/m2): HR=0·87 (95 % CI 0·41, 1·84, P=0·72) for underweight men and HR=1·12 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·65, P=0·58) for underweight women. Among ex-smokers, HR=0·86 (95 % CI 0·38, 1·93, P=0·72) for underweight men and HR=3·77 (95 % CI 0·42, 32·29, P=0·24) for underweight women. Among current smokers, HR=1·60 (95 % CI 1·28, 2·01, P<0·001) for underweight men and HR=2·07 (95 % CI 0·43, 9·94, P=0·36) for underweight women.
The present study does not support that being underweight per se is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Korean men and women.
A CoCrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy (HEA), in the form of a face-centered cubic (fcc) solid solution, was processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) to produce a nanocrystalline (nc) HEA. Significant grain refinement was achieved from the very early stage of HPT through 1/4 turn and an nc structure with an average grain size of ∼40 nm was successfully attained after 2 turns. The feasibility of significant microstructural changes was attributed to the occurrence of accelerated atomic diffusivity under the torsional stress during HPT. Nanoindentation experiments showed that the hardness increased significantly in the nc HEA during HPT processing and this was associated with additional grain refinement. The estimated values of the strain-rate sensitivity were maintained reasonably constant from the as-cast condition to the nc alloy after HPT through 2 turns, thereby demonstrating a preservation of plasticity in the HEA. In addition, a calculation of the activation volume suggested that the grain boundaries play an important role in the plastic deformation of the nc HEA where the flow mechanism is consistent with other nc metals. Transmission electron microscopy showed that, unlike conventional fcc nc metals, the nc HEA exhibits excellent microstructural stability under severe stress conditions.
few studies have addressed the association between the characteristics of ischemic lesions detected by diffusion-weighted imaging (dWi) and the clinical outcome in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic stroke. this study demonstrates a relationship between the findings assessed by dWi and the outcome in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic stroke.
We reviewed data from 118 patients who had posterior circulation ischemic stroke within six hours from the onset of their symptoms. the clinical outcome included early neurological deterioration (end) and a favorable outcome at three months after the onset of symptoms. using dWi, the lesion volume and the number and location of injured anatomical regions were analyzed to evaluate whether the results correlated with the clinical outcome measures.
the number of injured anatomical regions assessed by dWi was associated with the initial and delayed neurological status. Both the total volume and the number of injured anatomical regions associated with end and a favorable outcome. analysis of the location of the injured regions determined that only a pontine lesion independently associated with end. interestingly, four out of five patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy exhibited a large infarction volume but minor symptoms.
in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic strokes, the lesions assessed by dWi were associated with the clinical outcome, regardless of the initial neurological status. dWi is an effective initial imaging tool for assessing the extent of lesions and clinical outcomes in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic stroke.
An algorithm for the motion planning of the multifingered hand is proposed to generate finite displacements and changes in orientation of objects by considering sliding contacts as well as rolling contacts between the fingertip and the object at the contact point. Specifically, a nonlinear optimization problem is firstly formulated and solved to find the minimum joint velocity and the minimum contact force to impart a desired motion to the object at each time step. Then, the relative velocity at the contact point is found by calculating the velocity of the fingertip and the object at the contact point. Finally, time derivatives of the surface variables and the contact angle of the fingertip and the object at the current time step is computed using the Montana's contact equation to find the contact parameters of the fingertip and the object at the next time step. To show the validity of the proposed algorithm, a numerical example is illustrated by employing the robotic hand manipulating a sphere with three fingers each of which has four joints
In this paper, the 3D self-positioning problem of a mobile robot is investigated under the assumption that there are given a set of guide points along with camera vision as the detection mechanism. The minimal number of guide points is discussed to determine the position and orientation of a mobile robot via a single or multiple camera system. For practical application, a closed form 3D self-positioning algorithm is proposed using a stereo camera system with triple guide points. It is further shown that a double triangular pattern is an effective guide-mark that is robust against measurement noise in feature extraction. Then, by simulation, the sensitivity of positioning errors due to image errors are analyzed. It is experimentally shown that the proposed method with triple guide points works well for a walking robot equipped with a stereo camera in laboratory environment.
A new type of an iterative learning control method is proposed for dynamic systems with uncertain parameters. The method, which employs the model algorithmic control concept in the iteration sequence, is shown to be convergent for linear time-varying systems. Then the method is shown to be applicable for continuous-path control of a robot manipulator.
It has been assumed in international adjudication that each state in the litigation should be permitted to have a judge of its own nationality on the bench. This practice of employing national judges in international courts is deeply rooted in the history of arbitration and judicial settlement. Responding to a demand for it, the Committee of Jurists in 1920–1921 embodied the plan in Article 31 of the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice. This article was transferred intact to the Statute of the present International Court of Justice in 1945. Whether judges of the nationality of the parties, either in arbitration tribunals or in courts of justice, can be counted upon to be as “independent” as the processes of justice require, and as Article 2 of the present Statute stipulates, is a question of some moment to present-day international justice. It has been suggested as an alternative that a judge on the International Court of the nationality of the litigant should abstain; thus a state with no judge of its nationality on the Court would not be at a disadvantage.
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