A new adsorbent, microporous polyethylene chopped fibre, was produced from a high density polyethylene. This can adsorb lipopolysaccharides (LPS) linearly up to 2 h, and showed the highest capacity to adsorb LPS when compared with two other polyethylene-based adsorbents and a polystyrene-based adsorbent. More than twice as much orange II and 4-nitroquinoline N oxide were adsorbed in the new adsorbent as was LPS. The adsorption isotherm of the new adsorbent for LPS was of Ln type, the correlation between adsorption and concentration of solute was proportional; whereas orange II and 4-nitroquinoline N oxide were of L type (greater adsorption than Ln type); tetrachloroethylene adsorption was of S type, less than Ln type. Adsorption of LPS to the new adsorbent increased when temperature rose, whereas adsorption of orange II and 4-nitroquinoline N oxide decreased. These data suggest that the binding of LPS to the new adsorbent is a hydrophobic interaction, whereas the binding of both orange II and 4-nitroquinoline N oxide is not. The new adsorbent has a greater potential for the removal of endotoxin from tap water than other commercially available adsorbents such as charcoal and Amberlite XAD-2.