Current use of nanodiamond (ND) particles in electronic-related applications is mostly restricted to their role in seeding of substrates for growth of diamond films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). While it is a niche application, nanometer-sized diamond particles are indispensable in this role. Seeding of substrates using a novel slurry of detonation nanodiamond particles in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol is one of the topics of this article. At the same time, optical applications of NDs, particularly development of photoluminescent NDs for biomedical applications is one of the most popular current research topics. In this paper perspectives for the use of detonation NDs and specifically the role of surface functionalization in imparting photoluminescent properties to detonation NDs as well as enhanced photoluminescence of proton irradiated ND-polydimethylsiloxane composites are discussed.