New and more effective nutritional measures are urgently needed for the prevention of obesity. The role of Ca and vitamin D in obesity has been recently implicated. Low Ca intake and low vitamin D status have been linked with an increased risk of obesity in epidemiological studies; however, clinical intervention trials designed to test this association have produced controversial results. The suggested anti-obesity mechanisms of Ca and vitamin D include the regulation of adipocyte death (apoptosis), adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. Dietary Ca has been also shown to increase faecal fat excretion. The potential role of Ca and vitamin D in shifting energy balance towards a more negative state is an area of considerable interest. Ultimately, a review of recent research findings does not allow the reaching of a definitive conclusion that increasing Ca intake and rising vitamin D status will influence fat mass and body weight or decrease the risk of obesity and overweight.