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Birth dimensions have been associated with increased risk of both, severe mental illness and type 2 diabetes in adulthood, however, any influence on their co-occurrence has never been examined. This cohort study examine whether birth weight/ponderal index explain or modify the later association between severe mental illness and risk of type 2 diabetes.
The Metropolit cohort included 10,863 Danish men born in 1953 with information from age at conscription (between1971-84) until February 15th, 2018. Severe mental illness was defined as the exposure and information was retrieved from the national Danish health registries. Information on type 2 diabetes diagnosis or oral antidiabetic prescriptions was also obtained, as they were the outcome of interest. Information on birth weight/ponderal index was available from birth certificates. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the associations and interactions were tested.
After 47.1 years of follow-up, 848 (7.8%) and 1320 (12.2%) men developed a severe mental illness or diabetes, respectively. Men with severe mental illness presented higher risk of subsequent diabetes (HR = 1.92; 95%CI, 1.61–2.30). This association was stronger in severe mental ill men with low birth weight (HR = 3.58; 95%CI, 2.11–6.07), than in those normal birth weight (HR = 1.79; 95%CI, 1.45–2.20). This effect modification was most evident for men diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Birth information on birth weight/ponderal index could be of interest in diabetes screening on severe mental ill populations (especially in schizophrenia) since they might play a critical role in the increased risk of type 2 diabetes following severe mental illness.
Cognitive dysfunction is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) and a critical determinant of health outcome. Anhedonia is a criterion item toward the diagnosis of a major depressive episode (MDE) and a well-characterized domain in MDD. We sought to determine the extent to which variability in self-reported cognitive function correlates with anhedonia.
A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from (N=369) participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined diagnosis of MDD who were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) between January 2008 and July 2013. The IMDCP is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Measures of cognitive function, anhedonia, and depression severity were analyzed using linear regression equations.
A total of 369 adults with DSM-IV-TR–defined MDD were included in this analysis. Self-rated cognitive impairment [ie, as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS)] was significantly correlated with a proxy measure of anhedonia (r=0.131, p=0.012). Moreover, total depression symptom severity, as measured by the total Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score, was also significantly correlated with self-rated measures of cognitive dysfunction (r=0.147, p=0.005). The association between anhedonia and self-rated cognitive dysfunction remained significant after adjusting for illness severity (r=0.162, p=0.007).
These preliminary results provide empirical data for the testable hypothesis that anhedonia and self-reported cognitive function in MDD are correlated yet dissociable domains. The foregoing observation supports the hypothesis of overlapping yet discrete neurobiological substrates for these domains.
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