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Transposition of great arteries is one of newborns' most common cyanotic CHDs, and its treatment is arterial switch operation in the first days of life. Low cardiac output syndrome may develop in the early postoperative period. In this study, we evaluated perfusion index and left ventricular output blood flow changes in patients who underwent arterial switch operation and developed low cardiac output syndrome.
This study was conducted prospectively in newborns with transposition of great arteries who underwent arterial switch operation between 1st August 2020 and 1st August 2022. Low cardiac output syndrome score and left ventricular output were investigated. Initially, 6th, 12th, 18th, and 24th hour perfusion index and left ventricular output values of patients with and without low cardiac output syndrome were recorded. The results were evaluated statistically.
A total of 60 patients were included in the study. Sex distribution was equal. The median age at the time of surgery was 5 days (interquartile range 3–7 days), and the median weight was 3.1 kg (interquartile range 2.9–3. 4). Low cardiac output syndrome was detected in 30% (n = 18) of cases. The median perfusion index of patients who developed low cardiac output syndrome was significantly lower at the 12th, 18th, and 24th hours (p < 0.05) (0.99 versus 1.25, 0.86 versus 1.21, and 0.96 versus 1.33, respectively). Similarly, the median left ventricular output of patients who developed low cardiac output syndrome was significantly lower at 12th, 18th, and 24th hours (p < 0.05) (95 versus 110 ml/kg/min, 89 versus 109 ml/kg/min, and 92 versus 112 ml/kg/min, respectively). There was a significant correlation between perfusion index values and left ventricular output at all measurements (r > 0.500, p < 0.05).
Perfusion index and left ventricular output measurements decreased in newborns who developed low cardiac output syndrome after arterial switch operation, especially at 12th and 18th hours. Serial perfusion index and left ventricular output measurements can be instructive in predicting low cardiac output syndrome development.
Echinococcosis, caused by larval stage of the genus Echinococcus, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of Echinococcus species in stray dogs of Erzurum, a highly endemic region for cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Turkey. The study samples consisted of 446 stray dog faecal specimens collected from an animal shelter in Erzurum, Turkey, between October 2015 and February 2016. The faecal samples were collected from individual dogs for the isolation of taeniid eggs using the sequential sieving and flotation method (SSFM). Molecular analyses and sequencing revealed the prevalence of Echinococcus spp. as 14.13% (63/446) in faecal samples. The stray dogs harboured five different Echinococcus spp.: E. granulosus s.s. (G1/G3) (n = 41), E. equinus (G4) (n = 3), E. ortleppi (G5) (n = 1), E. canadensis (G6/G7) (n = 3) and E. multilocularis (n = 16). E. granulosus s.s. was the most abundant species. Surprisingly, the occurrence of E. multilocularis in dogs was revealed for the first time in Turkey. E. ortleppi was also reported for the first time in Turkey. These findings highlight a significant public health risk for human AE and CE, presenting useful baseline data on Echinococcus spp. infection in dogs for designing control strategies.
Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most threatening zoonoses in Eurasia. Human AE is widespread in the Erzurum region of Turkey, but the situation of the disease in intermediate and definitive hosts is unknown. A Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) was killed in a traffic accident in the north of Erzurum, and was taken to our laboratory. Sedimentation and counting technique (SCT), DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were performed. The SCT results showed that the lynx was infected with E. multilocularis with a medium (745 worms) worm burden. The DNA of adult worms obtained from the lynx was analyzed with a species-specific PCR, and the worms were confirmed to be E. multilocularis by 12S rRNA gene sequence analysis. This is the first report of E. multilocularis from Eurasian lynx in Turkey.
Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a potentially fatal zoonotic disease. Large parts of Turkey are considered as endemic for E. multilocularis. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of metacestode of E. multilocularis in wild rodents in Erzurum, an endemic region for human AE in Turkey. During the sampling period, a total of 498 rodents were trapped in twenty counties of Erzurum Province. Suspected lesions were observed on the livers of 48 rodents, and then partial fragment of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified. Five liver samples exhibited E. multilocularis infection. The prevalence of E. multilocularis for Microtus spp. was 1·3%. All of the infected rodents had fertile metacestodes. Infected rodents were morphologically and molecularly analysed and were confirmed to be Microtus irani by the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. This is the first report of the presence of E. multilocularis in rodent intermediate hosts in Turkey. Our findings of infected M. irani with protoscoleces show that this rodent can act as suitable intermediate host for E. multilocularis’ life cycle in Turkey. However, there was a complete lack of data on the infection of carnivores from the country. An extensive survey is recommended to determine the prevalence of E. multilocularis in definitive hosts in this endemic region.
A powerful community of royal slaves emerged in Kano Emirate in the wake of Usman dan Fodio's jihad (1804-08), which established the Sokoto Caliphate. These elite slaves held administrative and military positions of great power, and over the course of the nineteenth century played an increasing prominent role in the political, economic, and social life of Kano. However, the individuals who occupied slave offices have largely been rendered silent by the extant historical record. They seldom appear in written sources from the period, and then usually only in passing. Likewise, certain officials and offices are mentioned in official sources from the colonial period, but only in the context of broader colonial concerns and policies, usually related to issues about taxation and the proper structure of indirect rule.
As the following interview demonstrates, the collection and interpretation of oral sources can help to fill these silences. By listening to the words and histories of the descendents of royal slaves, as well as current royal slave titleholders, we can begin to reconstruct the social history of nineteenth-century royal slave society, including the nature of slave labor and work, the organization the vast plantation system that surrounded Kano, and the ideology and culture of royal slaves themselves.
The interview is but one example of a series of interviews conducted with current and past members of this royal slave hierarchy by Yusufu Yunusa. As discussed below, Sallama Dako belonged to the royal slave palace community in Kano. By royal slave, we mean highly privileged and powerful slaves who were owned by the emir, known in Hausa as bayin sarki (slaves of the emir or king).
Oggtt is a dried fermented milk product made and marketed primitively under uncontrolled conditions in the Arabian peninsula. By applying controlled conditions for production, the keeping quality of oggtt was greatly improved. The two types (cooked and salted) were produced from fresh pasteurized goats' or cows' milk or from skim milk powder. Oggtts flavoured with chocolate, date, mint or different fruits were also produced. Chemical composition and organoleptic properties of the final products were evaluated. Taste panel results indicated that the plain products, including those made from reconstituted milk, were acceptable, but flavoured oggtts, with the exception of date flavour, were not popular.
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