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To examine the dietary intake of total sugar, added sugar, non-added sugar and starch as well as dietary fibre and glycaemic index (GI) and their respective associations with insulin resistance.
Mixed linear models were used to study both cross-sectional and prospective associations between carbohydrate components and insulin resistance separately in girls and boys. Diet was assessed by a single 24 h recall interview and insulin resistance was calculated using the homoestasis model assessment (HOMA).
The Danish part of the European Youth Heart Studies (EYHS) I and II.
Girls and boys at 8–10 and 14–16 years from EYHS I (n 651) and 8–10-year-olds from baseline followed up 6 years later in EYHS II (n 233).
Among girls, a difference in dietary total sugar of 43 g/MJ was associated with a 1 sd difference of HOMA and a difference in dietary fibre of −8 g/MJ was associated with a 1 sd difference of HOMA, independent of age, maturity and other confounders (both P = 0·03). No baseline associations were found among boys and no prospective associations were found in either sex.
Dietary intake of total sugar may play an adverse role and fibre may play a beneficial role in concurrent insulin resistance among girls but not boys. Sex differences may be due to differences in maturity, physical activity, food patterns and selective reporting behaviours.
To study dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) in association with physical performance in elderly Europeans.
Cross-sectional and prospective study. Physical performance was measured using the Physical Performance Test (PPT) score on a scale from 0 to 27, where high scores indicate a better physical performance. Habitual diets were measured using diet history interviews and dietary GI and GL were estimated from table values.
Eight towns/centres from the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a Concerted Action (SENECA) in 1993 and 1999.
Seven hundred and sixty-five men and women, 75–80 years old, were examined in 1993; of these, 357 (47 %) were followed up in 1999, at age 80–85 years.
At baseline, both dietary GI and GL were significantly inversely associated with PPT scores (P = 0·03 and P = 0·05, respectively). When adjusted for age, BMI, physical activity, self-perceived health, chronic diseases and town/centre, the strength of the associations was attenuated and became non-significant (GI, P = 0·08; GL, P = 0·92). Dietary GI/GL were not associated with PPT scores 6 years later.
Among elderly Europeans, a high glycaemic diet was associated with a low physical performance at baseline but not 6 years later. Cross-sectional associations may in part be caused by variations in age, BMI, physical activity, self-perceived health, chronic diseases and geographic location.
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