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The conjunction in our title requires some explanation, if not justification, in the context in which this book is published. This book aims to introduce the undergraduate, postgraduate and general reader to a literary and intellectual relationship which is richer in German than in any other European culture. That is the constant and reciprocal relationship in the German-speaking world since the Middle Ages between literary and religious practice and discourse.
The relationship between literature and religion in German is unique in the European tradition. It is essential to the definition of German, Austrian and Swiss cultural identity in both the Protestant and Catholic traditions, and is crucial to our understanding of what has been called the 'special path' of German intellectual life. Offering in-depth essays by leading scholars, Literature and Religion in the German-Speaking World analyses this relationship from the beginnings of vernacular literature in German, via the Reformation, early-modern and Enlightenment periods, to the present day. It shows how such fundamental concepts as 'subjectivity', 'identity' and 'modernity' itself arise from the interrelation between religious and secular modes of understanding, and how this interrelation is inseparable from its expression in literature.
Descriptions of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet retreat after the last glacial maximum have included short-lived readvances occurring during the Older and Younger Dryas stadial periods and into the Holocene, but identification of these events has been largely limited to southwest and central British Columbia and northwest Washington State. We present evidence of a late Pleistocene readvance of Cordilleran ice occurring on the central coast of British Columbia on Calvert Island, between northern Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii. Evidence is provided by sedimentological and paleoecological information contained in a sedimentary sequence combined with geomorphic mapping of glacial features in the region. Results indicate that a cold climate existed between 15.1 and 14.3 cal ka BP and that ice advanced to, and then retreated from, the western edge of the island between 14.2 and 13.8 cal ka BP. These data provide the first evidence of a major fluctuation in the retreating ice sheet margin in this region and suggest that a cold climate was a major factor in ice readvance. These data contribute to the understanding of past temperature, ice loading and crustal response, the nature of ice margin retreat, and the paleoenvironment of an understudied area of the Pacific Northwest.
Improving dementia diagnosis rates in England has been a key strategic aim of the UK Government but the variation and low diagnosis rates are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore the variation in actual versus expected diagnosis of dementia across England, and how these variations were associated with general practice characteristics.
A cross-sectional, ecological study design using secondary data sources and median regression modelling was used. Data from the year 2011 for 7711 of the GP practices in England (92.7%). Associations of dementia diagnosis rates (%) per practice, calculated using National Health Service England’s ‘Dementia Prevalence Calculator’ and various practice characteristics were explored using a regression model.
The median dementia diagnosis rate was 41.6% and the interquartile range was 31.2–53.9%. Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated positive associations between dementia diagnosis rates and deprivation of the population, overall Quality and Outcomes Framework performance, type of primary care contract and size of practice list. Negative associations were found between dementia diagnosis rates and average experience of GPs in the practice and the proportion of the practice caseload over 65 years old.
Dementia diagnosis rates vary greatly across GP practices in England. This study has found independent associations between dementia diagnosis rates and a number of patient and practice characteristics. Consideration of these factors locally may provide targets for case-finding interventions and so facilitate timely diagnosis.
Background: Health anxiety (HA), or hypochondriasis, is a psychological problem characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one is physically unwell. A 2007 Cochrane review (Thomson and Page, 2007) found cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to be an effective intervention for individuals with HA. Similar findings were reported in a recent meta-analysis (Olatunji et al., 2014), which did not employ a systematic search strategy. The current review aimed to investigate the efficacy of CBT for HA, and to update the existing reviews. Method: A systematic search was conducted following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, including randomized controlled trials that compared CBT with a control condition for people with HA. Five hundred and sixty-seven studies were found in the original search, of which 14 were included in the meta-analysis. Results: Meta-analysis was conducted on 21 comparisons and a large effect size for CBT compared with a control condition was found at post therapy d = 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.77–1.25), as well as at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis provides support for the hypothesis that CBT is an effective intervention for HA when compared with a variety of control conditions, e.g. treatment-as-usual, waiting list, medication, and other psychological therapies.
Human rabies encephalitis is rare in Canada, with only five cases reported in the past 30 years. The first and only patient who contracted rabies encephalitis in British Columbia died in 2003. Here we provide the first detailed clinical and pathological description of that case, which had several unusual features, including preexisting immunosuppression, paralytic presentation, prolonged survival, focal lesions on neuroimaging and severe neuropathology with focal necrosis, intense inflammation, and abundant viral inclusion bodies.
Deviations from ellipticity in the bulges of edge-on disk galaxies, seen as ”boxy“, ”peanut-shaped“, or “X-shaped“ isophotes, have been known for some time (Jarvis 1986, Whitmore & Bell 1988). Contrary to earlier proposals that these features represent accreted material, recent numerical work (Combes et al. 1990; Raha et al. 1991) suggests that they form when the bars in barred galaxies experience a vertical bending instability and deform out of the disk plane. We have found this latter mechanism at work in simulations in which a bar is induced when a large disk galaxy accretes a small companion galaxy, thus incorporating the mechanism into the evolutionary framework of galaxy interactions. In support of this picture we present observations of Hickson 87a, an edge-on S0 galaxy whose morphological peculiarities exactly match those seen in the simulation.
Utilising a comparison research design of mothers involved in fostering (N = 28) and their peers (N = 28), the major findings were that within the fostering group, those who had been fostering the longest had the lowest sense of efficacy, reflecting that the experience of providing foster care eroded parents' sense of their own skill. In terms of attachment to the children, the data suggested that foster carers may resist becoming too close to the children in their care in order to limit the emotional cost of subsequent separation. Importantly, there was no significant correlation between the length of time in providing foster care and marital satisfaction, which supports the notion that providing foster care does not, in itself, cause marital stress. While formal support services were more utilised by foster carers there was some indication that this group is not well integrated into the broader community. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that over the long-term providing fostering care has some negative consequences for the carers in terms of their self-confidence. Agencies designated to work with carers need to consider proactive strategies to reduce this consequence.