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In a world dizzyingly shifted on its axis since 9/11, nothing has aided understanding of the profound twenty-first-century geopolitical slippages more than the revelations from Julian Assange's WikiLeaks site and the actions of whistle-blower Edward Snowden. Much has been written about the pair but little has investigated their persona and pronouncements onscreen. This article sets out to compare and contrast Snowden's and Assange's real as well as fictional cinematic portrayals, therefore. We find that their screen image conforms to notions of star celebrity but at the same time also challenges surveillance activism itself, on film as well as within wider political frames of reference. The movies about them may have deliberately foregrounded reactions towards the politics of surveillance, but that agenda has been conditioned by responses not only towards Assange and Snowden but also to the filmmakers producing these texts. We give resonance, in other words, to a wider discourse that goes beyond the cinematic in contemporary surveillance culture. There is an interlocutory discourse at play that sees cinema as not just a disruptive presence, but now more than ever as an active participant in mapping out the terrain under investigation. The challenge this presence brings to activism, we conclude, affects film's capacity to expose and contest contemporary state surveillance.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Nanoenergetic composites are of overwhelming interest to the Department of Defense because of the higher power output and the ability to finely tune the ignition thresholds of these composites. Recently, several variants of a nanoaluminum-poly(perfluorinated methacrylate) (AlFA) have been synthesized and optimized for a variety of applications including reactive warhead liners and bullet spotters. While conventional techniques such as thermal analysis and bomb calorimetry can be used to characterize the reaction mechanism and energy output of AlFA composites, characterizing their dynamic behaviour is more challenging. Bullet spotter applications require a material to be impact sensitive at very low velocities, yet be adequately insensitive. Several live-fire tests were conducted which revealed the AlFA50 material reacted consistently upon target impact at high velocities, but unreliably at very low velocities. In an effort to better understand the fundamental impact ignition mechanism and to determine the impact velocity threshold of AlFA50 a series of Taylor gas gun experiments were conducted. It was determined that the light-initiation mechanism was consistent with a pinch mechanism, and that the ignition velocity threshold was near 74 m/s. Based on these results, it was hypothesized that the addition of a filler material could be used to sensitize the AlFA50, and that Asay shear impact testing could be used to determine a more optimal shape of such inclusions. Experiments performed using the Asay shear impact test setup confirmed the pinch ignition mechanism, but observations also revealed that the size of the pinch point was important. Finally, it was shown that the addition of large glass beads (> 1mm in diameter) was effective at sensitizing the AlFA50 material at high and low velocities, with ignition observed at impact velocities as low as 35 m/s.
There are roughly 25 very metal-poor (VMP; [Fe/H] < -2.0), highly r-process-enhanced (‘r-II’; [Eu/Fe] > + 1.0) stars currently known, discovered over the past 20+ years. These stars provide nearly pure signatures of r-process events early in the Galactic history. We are conducting a high-resolution follow-up survey of RAVE and other bright targets to identify a total of > 100 r-II stars. Our pilot runs on the du Pont 2.5-m at Las Campanas Observatory and the ARC 3.5-m at Apache Point Observatory have already identified up to fourteen new r-II stars. We are continuing our high-resolution follow-up efforts to constrain the astrophysical site(s) and nature of the r-process.
This study compared the longer-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In total, 115 obese adults with T2D (sixty-six males, BMI: 34·6 (sd 4·3) kg/m2, age: 58 (sd 7) years, HbA1c: 7·3 (sd 1·1) %, diabetes duration: 8 (sd 6) years) were randomised to consume either an energy-restricted, very low-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat (LC) diet or an energy-matched high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet with supervised aerobic/resistance exercise (60 min, 3 d/week) for 52 weeks. Body weight, HbA1c and cognitive performance assessing perceptual speed, reasoning speed, reasoning ability, working memory, verbal fluency, processing speed, short-term memory, inhibition and memory scanning speed were assessed before and after intervention. No differences in the changes in cognitive test performance scores between the diet groups were observed for any of the cognitive function outcomes assessed (P≥0·24 time×diet). Percentage reduction in body weight correlated with improvements with perceptual speed performance. In obese adults with T2D, both LC and HC weight-loss diets combined with exercise training had similar effects on cognitive performance. This suggests that an LC diet integrated within a lifestyle modification programme can be used as a strategy for weight and diabetes management without the concern of negatively affecting cognitive function.
He would keep on trying to do this or that with a grim persistence that was painful to watch …
John Wyndham, ‘The Day of the Triffids’
Maple is a computer program capable of performing a wide variety of mathematical operations. It originated in the early 1980s as a computer algebra system, but today this description doesn't really do it justice. Maple has facilities for algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics (twoand three-dimensional plots, and animations), numerical calculations to arbitrary precision, and many other things besides. It is widely used in universities across the world, and is particularly useful for tasks that are tedious and error-prone when performed by humans, such as manipulating complicated series expansions and solving large sets of simultaneous equations. Used correctly, Maple can save time and quickly solve problems that would otherwise be intractable. Used incorrectly, it can lead to frustration, and the destruction of expensive IT equipment.
At the time of writing, the current version is Maple 2016. Versions before Maple 2015 were numbered starting from 1; the last of these was Maple 18. New features introduced in each version from Maple 4.0 onwards can be viewed using the help system (see Section 2.2). For the most part, recent changes have been relatively minor, at least as far as the material in this book is concerned. Consequently, all of the examples work with both Maple 2015 and Maple 2016. In fact, most will work in older versions as well, though naturally the number of exceptions increases the further back one goes. Two substantial new features are the dataplot command, discussed in Section 6.6, and the new rules concerning terminating characters, described in Appendix B (see also Section 2.3). Both of these were introduced in Maple 2015.
Why This Book?
This book is intended for students, teachers and researchers who will ultimately wish to use Maple for advanced applications. Here, ‘advanced’ means something more complex than evaluating a single integral, but not necessarily designing and running a simulation of the latest jet engine.
Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.