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Analysis of a recent surge of Morsnevbreen, Svalbard, is used to test predictions of the enthalpy balance theory of surging. High-resolution time series of velocities, ice thickness and crevasse distribution allow key elements of the enthalpy (internal energy) budget to be quantified for different stages of the surge cycle. During quiescence (1936–1990), velocities were very low, and geothermal heat slowly built-up enthalpy at the bed. Measurable mass transfer and frictional heating began in 1990–2010, then positive frictional heating-velocity feedbacks caused gradual acceleration from 2010 to 2015. Rapid acceleration occurred in summer 2016, when extensive crevassing and positive air temperatures allowed significant surface to bed drainage. The surge front reached the terminus in October 2016, coincident with a drop in velocities. Ice plumes in the fjord are interpreted as discharge of large volumes of supercooled water from the bed. Surge termination was prolonged, however, indicating persistence of an inefficient drainage system. The observations closely match predictions of the theory, particularly build-up of enthalpy from geothermal and frictional heat, and surface meltwater, and the concomitant changes in ice-surface elevation and velocity. Additional characteristics of the surge reflect spatial processes not represented in the model, but can be explained with respect to enthalpy gradients.
One of the foundations of product design is the division between production and design. This division manifests as designers aspiring to create fixed iconic archetypes and production replicates endlessly in thousands or millions. Today innovation and technological change are challenging this idea of product design and manufacturing. The evolution of Rapid Prototyping into Additive Manufacturing (AM), is challenging the notion of mass manufacture and consumer value. As AM advances in capability and capacity, the ability to economically manufacture products in low numbers with high degrees of personalisation poses questions of the accepted product development process. Removing the need for dedicated expensive tooling also eliminates the cyclical timescales and commitment to fixed designs that investment in tooling demands. The ability to alter designs arbitrarily, frequently and responsively means that the traditional design process need not be applied and because of this, design processes and practice might be radically different in the future. In this paper, we explore this possible evolution by drawing parallels with principles and development models found in software development.
The warm, equable, and ice-free early Eocene Epoch permits investigation of ecosystem function and macro-ecological patterns during a very different climate regime than exists today. It also provides insight into what the future may entail, as anthropogenic CO2 release drives Earth toward a comparable hothouse condition. Studying plant–insect herbivore food webs during hothouse intervals is warranted, because these account for the majority of nonmicrobial terrestrial biodiversity. Here, we report new plant and insect herbivore damage census data from two floodplain sites in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming, one in the Aycross Formation (50–48.25 Ma) at the basin edge (WRE) and the second in the Wind River Formation in the interior of the basin (WRI). The WRI site is in stratigraphic proximity to a volcanic ash that is newly dated to 52.416 ± 0.016/0.028/0.063 (2σ). We compare the Wind River Basin assemblages to published data from a 52.65 Ma floodplain flora in the neighboring Bighorn (BH) Basin and find that only 5.6% of plant taxa occur at all three sites and approximately 10% occur in both basins. The dissimilar floras support distinct suites of insect herbivores, as recorded by leaf damage. The relatively low-diversity BH flora has the highest diversity of insect damage, contrary to hypotheses that insect herbivore diversity tracks floral diversity. The distinctiveness of the WRE flora is likely due to its younger age and cooler reconstructed paleotemperature, but these factors are nearly identical for the WRI and BH floras. Site-specific microenvironmental factors that cannot be measured easily in deep time may account for these differences. Alternatively, the Owl Creek Mountains between the two basins may have provided a formidable barrier to the thermophilic organisms that inhabited the basin interiors, supporting Janzen's hypothesis that mountain passes appear higher in tropical environments.
Though theory suggests that individual differences in neuroticism (a tendency to experience negative emotions) would be associated with altered functioning of the amygdala (which has been linked with emotionality and emotion dysregulation in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), results of functional neuroimaging studies have been contradictory and inconclusive. We aimed to clarify the relationship between neuroticism and three hypothesized neural markers derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging during negative emotion face processing: amygdala activation, amygdala habituation, and amygdala-prefrontal connectivity, each of which plays an important role in the experience and regulation of emotions. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between trait neuroticism and the hypothesized neural markers in a large sample of over 500 young adults. Although neuroticism was not significantly associated with magnitude of amygdala activation or amygdala habituation, it was associated with amygdala–ventromedial prefrontal cortex connectivity, which has been implicated in emotion regulation. Results suggest that trait neuroticism may represent a failure in top-down control and regulation of emotional reactions, rather than overactive emotion generation processes, per se. These findings suggest that neuroticism, which has been associated with increased rates of transdiagnostic psychopathology, may represent a failure in the inhibitory neurocircuitry associated with emotion regulation.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
Dopaminergic imaging has high diagnostic accuracy for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) at the dementia stage. We report the first investigation of dopaminergic imaging at the prodromal stage.
We recruited 75 patients over 60 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 33 with probable MCI with Lewy body disease (MCI-LB), 15 with possible MCI-LB and 27 with MCI with Alzheimer's disease. All underwent detailed clinical, neurological and neuropsychological assessments and FP-CIT [123I-N-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)] dopaminergic imaging. FP-CIT scans were blindly rated by a consensus panel and classified as normal or abnormal.
The sensitivity of visually rated FP-CIT imaging to detect combined possible or probable MCI-LB was 54.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.2–68.6], with a specificity of 89.0% (95% CI 70.8–97.6) and a likelihood ratio for MCI-LB of 4.9, indicating that FP-CIT may be a clinically important test in MCI where any characteristic symptoms of Lewy body (LB) disease are present. The sensitivity in probable MCI-LB was 61.0% (95% CI 42.5–77.4) and in possible MCI-LB was 40.0% (95% CI 16.4–67.7).
Dopaminergic imaging had high specificity at the pre-dementia stage and gave a clinically important increase in diagnostic confidence and so should be considered in all patients with MCI who have any of the diagnostic symptoms of DLB. As expected, the sensitivity was lower in MCI-LB than in established DLB, although over 50% still had an abnormal scan. Accurate diagnosis of LB disease is important to enable early optimal treatment for LB symptoms.
Postpartum psychosis has recently been the focus of an in-depth storyline on a British television soap opera watched by millions of viewers.
This research explored how the storyline and concomitant increase in public awareness of postpartum psychosis have been received by women who have recovered from the condition.
Nine semistructured, one-to-one interviews were conducted with women who had experienced postpartum psychosis. Thematic analysis consistent with Braun and Clarke's six-step approach was used to generate themes from the data.
Public exposure provided by the postpartum psychosis portrayal was deemed highly valuable, and its mixed reception encompassed potentially therapeutic benefits in addition to harms.
Public awareness of postpartum psychosis strongly affects women who have experienced postpartum psychosis. This research highlights the complexity of using television drama for public education and may enable mental health organisations to better focus future practices of raising postpartum psychosis awareness.
Declaration of interest
GB is chair of action on Postpartum Psychosis. JH is director of action on Postpartum Psychosis. IJ is a trustee of action on Postpartum Psychosis and was a consultant to the BBC (television company) on the EastEnders storyline. CD is a trustee of action on Postpartum Psychosis, a trustee of BIPOLAR UK, vice chair of the Maternal Mental Health Alliance, and was a consultant to the BBC (television company) on the EastEnders storyline.
To develop evidence-based materials which provide information and support for parents who are concerned about their baby’s excessive crying. As well as meeting these parents’ needs, the aim was to develop a package of materials suitable for use by the UK National Health Service (NHS).
Parents report that around 20% of infants in Western countries cry excessively without an apparent reason during the first four months of age. Traditionally, research has focused on the crying and its causes. However, evidence is growing that how parents evaluate and respond to the crying needs to receive equal attention. This focus encompasses parental resources, vulnerabilities, well-being and mental health. At present, the UK NHS lacks a set of routine provisions to support parents who are concerned about their baby’s excessive crying. The rationales, methods and findings from a study developing materials for this purpose are reported.
Following a literature review, 20 parents whose babies previously cried excessively took part in focus groups or interviews. They provided reports on their experiences and the supports they would have liked when their baby was crying excessively. In addition, they identified their preferred delivery methods and devices for accessing information and rated four example support packages identified by the literature review.
During the period their baby cried excessively, most parents visited a health service professional and most considered these direct contacts to have provided helpful information and support. Websites were similarly popular. Telephones and tablets were the preferred means of accessing online information. Groups to meet other parents were considered an important additional resource by all the parents. Three package elements – a Surviving Crying website, a printed version of the website and a programme of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based support sessions delivered to parents by a qualified practitioner, were developed for further evaluation.
Disc galaxies forming in a LambdaCDM cosmology often experience violent mergers. The fact that disc galaxies are ubiquitous suggests that quiescent histories are not necessary. Modern cosmological simulations can now obtain realistic populations of disc galaxies, but it is still unclear how discs manage to survive massive mergers. Here we use a suite of hydrodynamical cosmological simulations to elucidate the fate of discs encountering massive mergers. We follow the changes in the post-merger disc-to-total ratios (D/T) of simulated galaxies and examine the relations between their present-day morphology, assembly history and gas fractions. We find that approximately half of present-day disc galaxies underwent at least one merger with a satellite more massive the host's stellar component and a third had mergers with satellites three times as massive. These mergers lead to a sharp, but often temporary, decrease in the D/T of the hosts, implying that discs are usually disrupted but then quickly re-grow. To do so, high cold gas fractions are required post-merger, as well as a relatively quiescent recent history (over a few Gyrs before z = 0). Our results show that discs can form via diverse merger pathways and that quiescent histories are not the dominant mode of disc formation.
Preliminary results are presented from the first validation of geophysical data products (ice concentration, Snow thickness on Sea ice (hs) and ice temperature (TI) from the NASA EOS Aqua AMSR-E Sensor, in East Antarctica (in September–October 2003). The challenge of collecting Sufficient measurements with which to validate the coarse-resolution AMSR-E data products adequately was addressed by means of a hierarchical approach, using detailed in situ measurements, digital aerial photography and other Satellite data. Initial results from a circumnavigation of the experimental Site indicate that, at least under cold conditions with a dry Snow cover, there is a reasonably close agreement between Satellite- and aerial-photo-derived ice concentrations, i.e. 97.2±3.6% for NT2 and 96.5±2.5% for BBA algorithms vs 94.3% for the aerial photos. In general, the AMSR-E concentration represents a Slight overestimate of the actual concentration, with the largest discrepancies occurring in regions containing a relatively high proportion of thin ice. The AMSR-E concentrations from the NT2 and BBA algorithms are Similar on average, although differences of up to 5% occur in places, again related to thin-ice distribution. The AMSR-E ice temperature (TI) product agrees with coincident Surface measurements to approximately 0.5˚C in the limited dataset analyzed. Regarding Snow thickness, the AMSR hs retrieval is a Significant underestimate compared to in situ measurements weighted by the percentage of thin ice (and open water) present. For the case Study analyzed, the underestimate was 46% for the overall average, but 23% compared to Smooth-ice measurements. The Spatial distribution of the AMSR-E hs product follows an expected and consistent Spatial pattern, Suggesting that the observed difference may be an offset (at least under freezing conditions). Areas of discrepancy are identified, and the need for future work using the more extensive dataset is highlighted.
A network of relatively fast-flowing tributaries in the catchment basins of the West Antarctic ice streams transport ice from the inland reservoir to the heads of the ice streams. Branches of the network follow valleys in basal topography but not all valleys contain tributaries. We investigate the circumstances favoring tributary flow upstream of Ice Streams D and E, using a combination of observation and numerical modelling. No consistent pattern emerges. The transition from tributary to ice-stream flow occurs smoothly along the main tributary feeding into the onset of Ice Stream D, with ice thickness being relatively more important upstream, and sliding being relatively more important downstream. Elsewhere, the downstream pattern of flow is more complicated, with local increases and decreases in the contribution of sliding to ice speed. Those changes may be due to variations in basal water storage, subglacial geologic properties or a combination of the two.
From its original formulation in 1990 the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE) has had as its primary aim the collection and interpretation of a continent-wide array of environmental parameters assembled through the coordinated efforts of scientists from several nations. ITASE offers the ground-based opportunities of traditional-style traverse travel coupled with the modern technology of GPS, crevasse detecting radar, satellite communications and multidisciplinary research. By operating predominantly in the mode of an oversnow traverse, ITASE offers scientists the opportunity to experience the dynamic range of the Antarctic environment. ITASE also offers an important interactive venue for research similar to that afforded by oceanographic research vessels and large polar field camps, without the cost of the former or the lack of mobility of the latter. More importantly, the combination of disciplines represented by ITASE provides a unique, multidimensional (space and time) view of the ice sheet and its history. ITASE has now collected >20 000km of snow radar, recovered more than 240 firn/ice cores (total length 7000 m), remotely penetrated to ~4000m into the ice sheet, and sampled the atmosphere to heights of >20 km.
Coastal polynyas can be regions of intense ocean-atmosphere heat transfer. In these polynyas, relatively warm ocean is exposed to cold, dry continental air, resulting in high sea-ice production rates. We have calculated ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes over an area of the Mertz Glacier polynya, East Antarctica, from atmospheric data collected in August 1999. Air-temperature and humidity data were measured using a probe extending from a helicopter undercarriage. Flights were made over the most vigorously ice-producing part of the polynya, within 20 km of the coast in southeast Buchanan Bay, both in very strong katabatic winds (20 m s–1) and during calmer conditions (5 m s–1). The total turbulent heat loss from the surface was nearly 575 W m–2 for the windy case and 250 W m–2 for the calmer one, with a ratio of sensible to latent heat in both cases of slightly more than four. These fluxes are in general agreement with other estimates of heat loss from Antarctic polynyas. Strong katabatic winds, sometimes exceeding 40 m s–1, were common in Buchanan Bay and the heat losses during the strong-wind cafe are probably typical of the region. We suggest that this inner part of the Mertz Glacier polynya has a very high ice-production rate.
We apply a novel one-dimensional glacier hydrology model that calculates hydraulic head to the tidewater-terminating Sermeq Avannarleq flowline of the Greenland ice sheet. Within a plausible parameter space, the model achieves a quasi-steady-state annual cycle in which hydraulic head oscillates close to flotation throughout the ablation zone. Flotation is briefly achieved during the summer melt season along a ∼17 km stretch of the ∼50 km of flowline within the ablation zone. Beneath the majority of the flowline, subglacial conduit storage ‘closes’ (i.e. obtains minimum radius) during the winter and ‘opens’ (i.e. obtains maximum radius) during the summer. Along certain stretches of the flowline, the model predicts that subglacial conduit storage remains open throughout the year. A calculated mean glacier water residence time of ∼2.2 years implies that significant amounts of water are stored in the glacier throughout the year. We interpret this residence time as being indicative of the timescale over which the glacier hydrologic system is capable of adjusting to external surface meltwater forcings. Based on in situ ice velocity observations, we suggest that the summer speed-up event generally corresponds to conditions of increasing hydraulic head during inefficient subglacial drainage. Conversely, the slowdown during fall generally corresponds to conditions of decreasing hydraulic head during efficient subglacial drainage.
Flow stripes seen in satellite imagery of ice streams and ice shelves are caused by surface undulations with kilometer-scale spacing and meter-scale relief and generally indicate current or recent fast ice flow. On a similar scale, folding of internal ice stratigraphy depicted in cross-flow ice-penetrating radar profiles is also a common occurrence in ice streams, suggesting a possible relationship between the two sets of features. We have traced surface flow stripes in RADARSAT and MODIS imagery on Kamb Ice Stream, West Antarctica, from the onset of streaming flow into the near-stagnant trunk. We compare the morphology and evolution of the surface flow stripes to the folds seen in the internal stratigraphy in cross-ice-stream radar profiles. We find essentially no correspondence in the observed locations or spacings between the radar internal layer folds at depths greater than 100 m and the flow stripes on the surface. The gap in the radar data and the surface mappings in the top 100 m of firn prevents a precise depiction of how the flow stripes and fold patterns at depth diverge. We explore hypotheses about how flow stripes and internal stratigraphic folds can originate and evolve differently as ice flows downstream. We suggest that flow stripes are subject to surface processes that can modify their morphology independently of the internal stratigraphy, leading to changes in the pattern of flow stripes relative to the internal layers below.