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Chemoradiotherapy followed by monthly temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Case reports have identified GBM patients who experienced transient radiological deterioration after concurrent chemoradiotherapy which stabilized or resolved after additional cycles of adjuvant TMZ, a phenomenon known as radiographic pseudoprogression. Little is known about the natural history of radiographic pseudoprogression.
We retrospectively evaluated the incidence of radiographic pseudoprogression in a population-based cohort of GBM patients and determined its relationship with outcome and MGMT promoter methylation status.
Out of 43 evaluable patients, 25 (58%) exhibited radiographic progression on the first MRI after concurrent treatment. Twenty of these went on to receive adjuvant TMZ, and subsequent investigation demonstrated radiographic pseudoprogression in 10 cases (50%). Median survival (MS) was better in patients with pseudoprogression (MS 14.5 months) compared to those with true radiologic progression (MS 9.1 months, p=0.025). The MS of patients with pseudoprogression was similar to those who stabilized/responded during concurrent treatment (p=0.31). Neither the extent of the initial resection nor dexamethasone dosing was associated with pseudoprogression.
These data suggest that physicians should continue adjuvant TMZ in GBM patients when early MRI scans show evidence of progression following concurrent chemoradiotherapy, as up to 50% of these patients will experience radiologic stability or improvement in subsequent treatment cycles.
Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a late complication of malignant glioma, mostly of glioblastoma, that usually responds poorly to treatment and is rapidly fatal. A long surviving case led us to review our experience with LMD in patients with oligodendrogliomas.
A 15-year retrospective chart review was performed. Patients with both oligodendroglial tumors and LMD were identified. A single neuro-pathologist reviewed all histological sections, a single neuro-radiologist reviewed all available images and lp/19q status was assessed.
Seven out of 145 patients with oligodendroglioma were diagnosed with LMD. Six were male. Median age at tumor diagnosis was 41 years (range, 28-50). None had radiographic or pathological evidence of leptomeningeal or subependymal tumor at initial diagnosis. Most patients had pure anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (4/7); 6/7 had 1p/19q co-deletion. The median time to first relapse was 41 months (range, 19-127). The median time to LMD was 76 months (range, 19-151) from initial diagnosis and 28 months (range, 0-36) from first relapse, respectively. Leptomeningeal disease treatments included spinal radiation and intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy. After progression, some patients with LMD remained stable clinically. The median survival from initial diagnosis was 104 months (range, 19-183) and from LMD diagnosis was 32 months (range, 2-43).
Leptomeningeal disease is a complication of oligodendroglioma that may occur preferentially in long surviving patients with 1p/19q co-deletion. Leptomeningeal disease in patients with oligodendrogliomas appears to be relatively indolent which may have implications for their treatment and be related to 1p/19q status.
Cancer immunogene therapy is based on vaccination with radiated, autologous tumor cells transduced with immunostimulatory genes. To help determine an optimal glioma immunogene therapy strategy, we stimulated lymphocytes with autologous human glioma cells transduced with B7-2 (CD86), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and/or interleukin-12 (IL12).
A human glioma-derived cell culture (Ed147.BT) was transduced with B7-2, GM-CSF, and/or IL12 using retroviral vectors. Autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were co-cultured with irradiated gene-transduced tumor alone or a combination of radiated wild type and gene-transduced cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation was determined by serial cell counts. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry for CD4, CD8, and CD16. Anti-tumor cytotoxicity was determined by chromium-51 (51Cr) release assay.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells cell numbers all decreased during primary stimulation but tumor cells expressing B7-2 or GM-CSF consistently caused secondary proliferation. Tumors expressing B7-2 and GM-CSF or B7-2, GM-CSF, and IL12 consistently increased PBMC CD8+ (cytotoxic T) and CD16+ (natural killer) percentages. Interestingly, anti-tumor cytotoxicity only exceeded that of PBMC stimulated with wild type tumor alone when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with both wild type tumor and B7-2/GM-CSF- (but not IL12) transduced cells.
PBMC proliferation and phenotype is altered as expected by exposure to immunostimulatory gene-transduced tumor. However, transduced tumor cells alone do not stimulate greater anti-tumor cytotoxicity than wild type tumor. Only B7-2/GM-CSF-transduced cells combined with wild type produced increased cytotoxicity. This may reflect selection of tumor subclones with limited antigenic spectra during retrovirus-mediated gene transfer.
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