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The Wisconsin Twin Project comprises multiple longitudinal studies that span infancy to early adulthood. We summarize recent papers that show how twin designs with deep phenotyping, including biological measures, can inform questions about phenotypic structure, etiology, comorbidity, heterogeneity, and gene–environment interplay of temperamental constructs and mental and physical health conditions of children and adolescents. The general framework for investigations begins with rich characterization of early temperament and follows with study of experiences and exposures across childhood and adolescence. Many studies incorporate neuroimaging and hormone assays.
As multi-core computing is now standard, it seems irresponsible for constraints researchers to ignore the implications of it. Researchers need to address a number of issues to exploit parallelism, such as: investigating which constraint algorithms are amenable to parallelisation; whether to use shared memory or distributed computation; whether to use static or dynamic decomposition; and how to best exploit portfolios and cooperating search. We review the literature, and see that we can sometimes do quite well, some of the time, on some instances, but we are far from a general solution. Yet there seems to be little overall guidance that can be given on how best to exploit multi-core computers to speed up constraint solving. We hope at least that this survey will provide useful pointers to future researchers wishing to correct this situation.
The global energy transition from carbon-intensive to renewable fuels has increasingly demanded a better understanding of the causes and consequences of the rapid development of unconventional oil and gas. Focusing on key countries including the United States, Canada, China, Argentina, the United Kingdom and Australia, this book consists of case studies and in-depth analyses that weigh up the risks and rewards at regional, national and global scales. Explaining how and why unconventional fuels are transforming the global energy landscape, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are explored through a political, economic and governance-based perspective. Emphasis is placed on how to regulate the industry, encompassing local issues, stakeholder engagement and the social licence to operate. The new baseline studies and standards introduced in this book provide a timely insight into the trade-offs across the social, economic and environmental domains, making this ideal for researchers and policymakers in energy fields, and for graduate students.
Human rabies encephalitis is rare in Canada, with only five cases reported in the past 30 years. The first and only patient who contracted rabies encephalitis in British Columbia died in 2003. Here we provide the first detailed clinical and pathological description of that case, which had several unusual features, including preexisting immunosuppression, paralytic presentation, prolonged survival, focal lesions on neuroimaging and severe neuropathology with focal necrosis, intense inflammation, and abundant viral inclusion bodies.
This chapter presents an outline of Immanuel Kant's project in the Critique of Pure Reason and his views of reason and the unconditioned. It provides a sketch of the most basic features of Schelling's project as it is developed in the Form-Schrift, focusing on how his argument for several specific features of the first principle he identifies is based on Kant's considerations concerning the unconditioned. The chapter then focuses on the Ich-Schrift, noting the main ways in which it represents an advance over the Form-Schrift. It provides a closer analysis and evaluation of central features of Schelling's argument by responding to a series of objections raised by Dieter Henrich. Finally, the chapter shows that Kant's specific views on the unconditioned play a crucial and underappreciated role in the development of fundamental aspects of Schelling's early philosophy.
Amphibian populations have been declining worldwide, with multiple potential causes. At La Selva field station in north-eastern Costa Rica, previous work has shown that populations of many amphibians have decreased significantly since the 1970s, especially in primary forest. Starting in 1998, we investigated one of the most common frog species at La Selva, the poison-dart frog Oophaga pumilio (= Dendrobates pumilio). In a survey of 50 plots of 100 m2 in 1998, adult frogs were 4.6 times more abundant in secondary forest than in primary forest. Tadpoles were found only in secondary-forest plots. Almost all (89%) of the tadpoles were found in leaf axils of Dieffenbachia spp., which were much more abundant in secondary-forest than in primary-forest plots. The greater abundance of Dieffenbachia spp. in secondary forest was confirmed in a broad survey of ~11 km of trails within La Selva in 2002. When the same trails were resampled in 2012, Dieffenbachia spp. had been extirpated from 72% of the 50-m segments where plants were present in 2002; abundance was greatly reduced in the few trail segments where any Dieffenbachia spp. remained in 2012. The loss of Dieffenbachia spp., especially in secondary forest, removed the species most often used by O. pumilio for tadpole rearing. Based on counts of calling frogs in 2010, there was no difference in O. pumilio abundance in primary versus secondary forest, in striking contrast to multiple earlier surveys that found much greater frog abundance in secondary forest. We propose that the reason for the rapid decline in Dieffenbachia spp. is herbivory by the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), which has increased in abundance at La Selva in recent years. A likely consequence is continued reduction in O. pumilio populations.
To examine cross-sectional relationships between plasma vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults.
Data were collected from interviews, physical examinations and biomarker measurements. Total plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured using LC–tandem MS. Associations between 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic risk factors were modelled using weighted linear regression with robust estimates of standard errors.
Individuals born in Jerusalem during 1974–1976.
Participants of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (n 1204) interviewed and examined at age 32 years. Participants were oversampled for low and high birth weight and for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity.
Mean total 25(OH)D concentration among participants was 21·7 (sd 8·9) ng/ml. Among males, 25(OH)D was associated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (natural log-transformed, β=−0·011, P=0·004) after adjustment for BMI. However, these associations were not present among females (P for sex interaction=0·005).
We found evidence for inverse associations of 25(OH)D with markers of insulin resistance among males, but not females, in a healthy, young adult Caucasian population. Prospective studies and studies conducted on other populations investigating sex-specific effects of vitamin D on cardiometabolic risk factors are warranted.