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For imperial Britain, it has often been stated, the introduction and maintenance of the rule of law was a cardinal responsibility and indeed the great achievement of empire. But this is a view that has also been strongly challenged. For example, it has been argued that often at times of crisis, maintaining the rule of law collided with the primary responsibility of the colonial state to secure social order, with the state then turning to emergency measures, forsaking the rule of law and legal process. In the early 1930s, the colonial state in Burma faced a major rebellion, and indeed emergency measures were introduced to try the large number of rebels captured. However, this article, drawing on a substantial collection of files created by the trials and the appeals that arose from them, argues that, within that emergency regime, long-established legal processes were retained to a striking degree. In fact, the article concludes, at a time of severe challenge to the colonial order, maintaining the rule of law and legal process became still more critical in the colonial mind, for were it to be forsaken, those charged with running the colonial state would be forced to question its – and their – very purpose.
If the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals are to be achieved, African smallholder farmers will need to embrace new technologies such as conservation agriculture (CA) in order to increase both their productivity and sustainability. Yet farmers have been slow to embrace CA and when they have, they are inclined to do so at limited intensities. Current investigations tend to apply binary frameworks that classify all utilizations as ‘adoption’, and do not consider in depth the farmer perspectives and contextual realities that affect farmer decision-making on the intensity of use. We analyze 57 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with farmers who implement CA to understand why they tend to do so at limited intensities and what is required to intensify their CA activities, both for them and others within their communities. While most farmers reported substantial yield benefits from using CA, this was mainly related to input intensification (particularly herbicides) and was limited by constrained financial resources. Overall, the intensity of CA utilization was constrained due to farmer-identified constraints across their physical, financial, human and informational resources. Because of this, stagnation at low intensities of CA utilization was common, reflecting the assumed transformational adoption pathway for CA and the focus on binary adoption, as opposed to modification and the broader utilization process. To overcome this, we propose a more nuanced transitional approach focused on the intensification of four broader principles of CA over time [i.e., (1) strategic tillage, (2) soil protection, (3) crop diversification and (4) input management] as opposed to the strict packaging of CA practices. Such a change in approach will foster increased positive perceptions within the community and allow farmers to locally adapt CA to build their own way toward complete CA utilization and with less need for subsidization.
The objective of this panel was to generate recommendations to promote the engagement of front-line emergency department (ED) clinicians in clinical and implementation research.
Panel members conducted semi-structured interviews with 37 Canadian adult and pediatric emergency medicine researchers to elicit barriers and facilitators to clinician engagement in research activities, and to glean strategies for promoting clinician engagement.
Responses were organized by themes, and, based on these responses, recommendations were developed and refined in an iterative fashion by panel members.
We offer eight recommendations to promote front-line clinician engagement in clinical research activities. Recommendations to promote clinician engagement specifically address the creation of a research-friendly culture in the ED, minimizing the burden of data collection on clinical staff through the careful design of data collection tools and the use of research staff, and communication between researchers and clinical staff to promote adherence to study protocols.
The objective of Panel 2b was to present an overview of and recommendations for the conduct of implementation trials and multicentre studies in emergency medicine.
Panel members engaged methodologists to discuss the design and conduct of implementation and multicentre studies. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with 37 Canadian adult and pediatric emergency medicine researchers to elicit barriers and facilitators to conducting these kinds of studies.
Responses were organized by themes, and, based on these responses, recommendations were developed and refined in an iterative fashion by panel members.
We offer eight recommendations to facilitate multicentre clinical and implementation studies, along with guidance for conducting implementation research in the emergency department. Recommendations for multicentre studies reflect the importance of local study investigators and champions, requirements for research infrastructure and staffing, and the cooperation and communication between the coordinating centre and participating sites.
Adequate pain relief at the scene of injury and during transport to hospital is a major challenge in all acute traumas, especially for those with hip fractures, whose injuries are difficult to immobilize and long-term outcomes may be adversely affected by administration of opiate analgesics. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) is a procedure routinely undertaken by clinicians in emergency departments for hip fracture patients, but use by paramedics at the scene of emergency calls, is not yet evaluated (1).
We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility trial using novel audited scratchcard randomization to allocate eligible patients to FICB or usual care. Paramedics are recruited and trained to assess patients for hip fracture and carry out FICB. We will follow up patients to assess accuracy of paramedic diagnosis, acceptability to patients and paramedics, compliance of paramedics and also measures of pain, side effects, time in hospital and quality of life in order to plan a full trial if appropriate. The primary outcome measure is health related quality of life, measured using Short Form (SF)-12 at 1 and 6 months. Interviews and focus groups will be used to understand acceptability of FICB to patients and paramedics. This study was funded by Health and Care Research Wales (1003).
We have developed:
•paramedic pathway to assess patients for hip fracture and FICB
•paramedic training package, delivered by Consultant Anaesthetist
To date we have recruited nineteen paramedics; ten are fully trained and recruiting patients, the remainder are being trained. Fifty-four patients have been randomized and thirty-five have consented to follow-up. Thirteen 1-month and five 6-month follow-up questionnaires have been received.
This study will enable us to recommend whether to undertake a definitive multi-centre randomized controlled trial of FICB by paramedics for hip fracture to determine if the procedure is effective for patients and worthwhile for the National Health Service.
To develop evidence-based materials which provide information and support for parents who are concerned about their baby’s excessive crying. As well as meeting these parents’ needs, the aim was to develop a package of materials suitable for use by the UK National Health Service (NHS).
Parents report that around 20% of infants in Western countries cry excessively without an apparent reason during the first four months of age. Traditionally, research has focused on the crying and its causes. However, evidence is growing that how parents evaluate and respond to the crying needs to receive equal attention. This focus encompasses parental resources, vulnerabilities, well-being and mental health. At present, the UK NHS lacks a set of routine provisions to support parents who are concerned about their baby’s excessive crying. The rationales, methods and findings from a study developing materials for this purpose are reported.
Following a literature review, 20 parents whose babies previously cried excessively took part in focus groups or interviews. They provided reports on their experiences and the supports they would have liked when their baby was crying excessively. In addition, they identified their preferred delivery methods and devices for accessing information and rated four example support packages identified by the literature review.
During the period their baby cried excessively, most parents visited a health service professional and most considered these direct contacts to have provided helpful information and support. Websites were similarly popular. Telephones and tablets were the preferred means of accessing online information. Groups to meet other parents were considered an important additional resource by all the parents. Three package elements – a Surviving Crying website, a printed version of the website and a programme of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based support sessions delivered to parents by a qualified practitioner, were developed for further evaluation.
There are relatively few comparisons between synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations and glacier mass-balance measurements. More typically, SAR has been deployed to identify changes in the end-of-summer snowline and other facies boundaries. In this paper, we analyze the geophysical processes affecting SAR amplitude data over two Arctic glacier systems in northern Scandinavia to assess the potential of SAR observations for the retrieval of surface balance parameters. Using a backscatter model and in situ data, we identify the controls on SAR imagery in terms of mass-balance measurement and discuss the glaciological parameters which can reasonably be derived from multi-temporal SAR data. Our results show that amplitude SAR imagery, in the absence of in situ measurements, is not capable of providing meaningful mass-balance data. We show that backscatter from temperate glaciers is affected primarily by snow grain-size and density, and therefore processes such as firnification or depth-hoar formation can complicate the analysis of imagery. We conclude that SAR imagery over temperate glaciers can provide valuable proxy information but not direct mass-balance terms.
Assessing the impact of possible climate change on the water resources of glacierized areas requires a reliable model of the climate–glacier-mass-balance relationship. In this study, we simulate the mass-balance evolution of Engabreen, Norway, using a simple mass-balance model based on daily temperature and precipitation data from a nearby climate station. Ablation is calculated using a distributed temperature-index method including potential direct solar radiation, while accumulation is distributed linearly with elevation. The model was run for the period 1974/75–2001/02, for which annual mass-balance measurements and meteorological data are available. Parameter values were determined by a multi-criteria validation including point measurements of mass balance, mass-balance gradients and specific mass balance. The modelled results fit the observed mass balance well. Simple sensitivity experiments indicate a high sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature changes, as expected for maritime glaciers. The results suggest, further, that the mass balance of Engabreen is more sensitive to warming during summer than during winter, while precipitation changes affect almost exclusively the winter balance.
We use satellite images to track seasonal and interannual variations in blue-ice extent over the past 30 years near Byrd Glacier on the East Antarctic plateau. The study areas have low slope and few nearby nunataks, which may increase their climate sensitivity. A threshold-based algorithm sensitive to snow grain-size is used to analyze 56 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images over three recent summer seasons. Seasonal blue-ice exposure grows rapidly in late spring, and peaks by late December. Exposure is relatively constant between late December and mid-January, then declines in February. We interpret this cycle as due to removal and re-accumulation of patchy snow. Interannual changes in blue-ice area may be estimated by tracking the near-constant summer maximum extent period. Fifteen mid-summer Landsat images, spanning 1974–2002, were analyzed to determine long-term variations. Interannual area changes are 10–30%; however, the MODIS data revealed that the exposed blue-ice area can be sharply reduced for up to 2 weeks after a snowfall event; and in the 2001/02 season, patchy snow cover persisted for the entire summer. The combination of MODIS seasonal and Landsat interannual data indicates that blue-ice areas can be climate-sensitive. The strong feedback between snow cover and surface energy balance implies that blue-ice areas could rapidly decrease due to climate-related increases in snowfall or reduced ablation.
Dynamics of marine-terminating major outlet glaciers are of high interest because of their potential for drawing down large areas of the Greenland ice sheet. We quantify short-term changes in ice flow speed and calving at a major West Greenland glacier and examine their relationship to the presence of the sea-ice melange and tidal stage. A field campaign at the terminus of Store Gletscher (70.40˚N, 50.55˚W) spanning the spring and summer of 2008 included four broadband seismometers, three time-lapse cameras, a tide gauge, an automatic weather station and an on-ice continuous GPS station. Sub-daily fluctuations in speed coincide with two modes of oceanic forcing: (1) the removal of the ice melange from the terminus front and (2) tidal fluctuations contributing to speed increases following ice melange removal. Tidal fluctuations in ice flow speed were observed 16km from the terminus and possibly extend further. Seismic records suggest that periods of intensive calving activity coincide with ice-flow acceleration following breakup of the melange in spring. A synchronous increase in speed at the front and clearing of the melange suggests that the melange directly resists ice flow. We estimate a buttressing stress (~30–60 kPa) due to the presence of the ice melange that is greater than expected from the range of observed tides, though an order of magnitude less than the driving stress.
Horizontal velocity measurements on the lower part of Engabreen, Norway, were made from repeat aerial photography. IMCORR software, which has been widely used to measure velocities from satellite images, was used to make the measurements. This is the first known successful use of IMCORR on aerial photographs. Supplementary horizontal velocity measurements were made from repeat measurements of stakes, giving velocities over different periods and also in areas that are too slow-moving to register a measurable velocity after only a few days.
The mass-loss rates of O stars and B supergiants are of interest because of their influence on the evolution of these massive stars (among other matters). In principle, the ‘safest’ (i.e. most model-independent) method of determining M is to measure the free-free emission from stellar winds at radio wavelengths. This method is complicated, however, by the existence of poorly understood non-thermal emission in some stars, and by the possibility of hydrogen recombination in the winds of B supergiants.
We are in the process of carrying out a VLA survey of OB stars, initially at 3.5cm, to a flux limit of ~0.1mJy. Because all our targets should have thermal emission at detectable levels (based on mass-loss rates from Howarth & Prinja 1989 and terminal velocities from Prinja, Barlow & Howarth 1990), the survey is yielding an unbiassed estimate of the frequency of non-thermal emission. The improved sensitivity of our survey over earlier work defines the log M – log L relationship much more precisely than was previously possible, over a large range in luminosities; and allows us to make definitive statements on recombination in B supergiant winds. Our sample includes the first radio detections of an OC star, of a massive X-ray binary, and of thermal emission from a main-sequence star.
St Andrews was of tremendous significance in medieval Scotland. Its importance remains readily apparent in the buildings which cluster the rocky promontory jutting out into the North Sea: the towers and walls of cathedral, castle and university provide reminders of the status and wealth of the city in the Middle Ages. As a centre of earthly and spiritual government, as the place of veneration forScotland's patron saint and as an ancient seat of learning, St Andrews was the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland. This volume provides the first full study of this special and multi-faceted centre throughout its golden age. The fourteen chapters use St Andrews as a focus for the discussion of multiple aspects of medieval life in Scotland. They examine church, spirituality, urban society andlearning in a specific context from the seventh to the sixteenth century, allowing for the consideration of St Andrews alongside other great religious and political centres of medieval Europe.
Michael Brown is Professor of Medieval Scottish History, University of St Andrews; Katie Stevenson is Keeper of Scottish History and Archaeology, National Museums Scotland and Senior Lecturer in Late Medieval History, University of St Andrews.
Contributors: Michael Brown, Ian Campbell, David Ditchburn, Elizabeth Ewan, Richard Fawcett, Derek Hall, Matthew Hammond, Julian Luxford, Roger Mason, Norman Reid, Bess Rhodes, Catherine Smith, Katie Stevenson, Simon Taylor, Tom Turpie.