Recent trends in the area of catalytic applications of metal–organic framework (MOF)-derived nanocarbons are covered. These highly porous nanostructures, convenient for the green chemistry processes, are generally formed by the direct carbonization of a variety of MOF, mainly MOF-5, ZIF-8, ZIF-67, UiO-66-NH2, MIL-101-NH2 at 700–1000 °C in argon or nitrogen flow. Differences between conventional porous carbons and MOF-derived carbons are in pore volumes, surface area, and presence of ad-atoms. The morphology of the MOF-derived nanocarbons can be adjustable with uniform dopant distribution. Resulting nanocarbons are widely applied in heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis and are very promising as electrocatalysts, having excellent performance in oxygen evolution reaction, oxygen reduction reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. Catalytic applications for environmental purposes are also discussed. Good catalytic performance is related with highly dispersed heteroatoms, density of catalytic active sites, controllable porosity, and high surface area. Opportunities for further research are indicated, in particular, the creation of low pH-stable electrocatalysts and novel strategies for the preparation of 1÷3D single-atom catalysts.