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This paper considers the possible commercial viability of applying the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method to avalanches. The MPS method is a powerful tool for reproducing the flow phenomenon with large-scale surface deformation. In order to apply this method to snow avalanches, we modified the original model to introduce constitutive equations of Bingham fluid, dilatant fluid and the erosion–deposition process. The modified model was applied to some cases and evaluated through comparison with experimental results and observed data.
The range of polishing-induced subsurface damage remaining in a commercially available production grade 4H-SiC (0001) epi-ready substrate was evaluated by the observation from the (-1100) cleavage plane using two kinds of highly strain-sensitive characterization methods. Firstly, the analysis using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) with a submicron spatial resolution was conducted on the exposed cross sectional plane. Then, for the further quantitative evaluation excluding the influence of roughness or contamination of the cleavage plane, a synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction experiment was carried out. The range of the subsurface damage evaluated in those experiments was ensured by confirming none of additional strain inserted at the cleavage, as compared with the damage-free substrate prepared by high temperature thermal etching. As a result, the depth of the residual strained region below polishing-induced scratches at the surface was estimated to be in the range of a few microns, which is much deeper than the previously reported value of 100 nm by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. It suggests a potential of EBSD for the conventional tool to characterize even a small amount of strain in SiC single crystal.
In nature, when hazardous geophysical granular flows (e.g. a snow avalanche) impact on an obstacle as they stream down a slope, rapid changes in flow depth, direction and velocity will occur. It is important to understand how granular material flows around such obstacles in order to enhance the design of defense structures. In this study, a three dimensional (3-D) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model is developed to simulate granular flow past different types of obstacles. The elastic–perfectly plastic model with implementation of the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is applied to simulate the material behavior, which describes the stress states of soil in the plastic flow regime. The model was validated by simulating the collapse of a 3-D column of sand with two different aspect ratios; the results showed that the SPH method is capable of simulating granular flow. The model is then applied to simulate the gravity-driven granular flow down an inclined surface obstructed by a group of columns with different spacing, a circular cylinder and a tetrahedral wedge. The numerical results are then compared with experimental results and two different numerical solutions. The good agreements obtained from these comparisons demonstrate that the SPH method may be a powerful method for simulating granular flow and can be extended to design protective structures.
Photoluminescence (PL) measurements have been carried out as a function of temperature and of excitation power on heavily magnesium (Mg) implanted ultra-pure indium phosphide (InP) with a dose concentration, [Mg], ranging from l×lO15cm-3 to 3×1020cm−3. Several undefined emissions have been observed; a strong emission, Z, emerges near the band-acceptor emission for [Mg]= 3×1020cm−3 and two novel emissions, Y1 and Y3 appear below the energy of donor-acceptor pair emission for [Mg] smaller than 3×1018cm−3. In order to obtain more explanation on such emission, temperature and excitation power dependence of the emissions were investigated. Temperature dependent PL experiments revealed that Z is composed of three emissions named ZA, ZBand ZC. Measured activation energies suggest Z represents a pair type transition associated with Mg acceptors. While, Y1 and Y3 emissions are attributed to donor-acceptor type transition because of a significant blue-shift with increasing excitation power.
The oxygen migration process during microwave-discharge plasma oxidation of Si is investigated using 18O as a tracer. The exchange phenomena between migrating oxygen and its counterpart in SiO2 are observed. When plasma grown oxide (Si 18O2) is further oxidized in 18O-enriched plasma. 18O is observed both at the SiO2 /Si interface and in the bulk of Si16O2. For the reversed case. i.e. Si18 O2 is oxidized in 18O plasma, the total amount of pre-existing 18O decreases. The suppression of 18O is more drastic in the surface region. These oxygen distributions indicate that oxygen migrates toward the interface accompanied by oxygen exchange.
The structural effects of low-energy (30-500 eV), mass separated C12 Ion doping of GaAs simultaneous with conventional solid source MBE growth have been studied using room-temperature raman scattering, Hall-effect, transmission electron microscopy and 2K photoluminesence measurements for GaAs epitaxy temperatures of 550 ºC. Results indicate good acceptor activation without detectable residual damage is achieved for ion energies ≤ 240 eV, while at EIon = 500 eV, residual damage is present with a corresponding reduction in electrical activation. Low-energy TRIM calculations indicate that the damage is related to the increased depth distribution of vacancies and interstitials created during the higher (500 eV) implantation process which can not be annealed out at growth temperatures. Constant energy (100 eV) film growth experiments for a range of implantation currents (45 pA/cm2 - 45 nA/cm2) and growth temperatures of 550 and 550 ºC, show LO Raman peak broadening and mode hardening for currents ≥15 nA while maintaining very high C acceptor activation. This is interpreted as residual stress due to small amounts of interstitial C in the highest doped films. Both Hall mobility measurements and photoluminesence show no evidence of C dopant compensation.
Recently, we introduced various acceptor impurities into MBE-grown ultra-pure GaAs by conventional high-energy ion implantation and found many novel shallow emissions associated with acceptor-acceptor pairs. Most of these emissions were easily quenched by extremely small amount of residual donor atoms which were unintentionally introduced during doping processes. For the interpretation of impurity effects, the usage of mass-separated atom as dopant source was strongly suggested. Along this consideration, we developed combined ion beam and molecular beam epitaxy (CIBMBE) technology, in which damage-free doping with high mass purity (M/ΔM=100) is expected to be possible. We here present the results of low-energy (100 eV) carbon ion doping using CIBMBE method. Samples were prepared asa function of growth temperature (Tg=400-700°C) and ion beam current. Net hole concentration, |NA-ND| as high as ~1×1020 cm-3 was obtained in as-grown samples. In 2K photoluminescence spectra, emissions due to acceptor-acceptor pairs exhibit specific energy shift with growing |NA-ND|. Results indicate that carbon doping can be made efficiently even at Tg as low as 500°C without any post heat treatment. These results also tell that by CIBMBE method no serious radiation damages are produced and the undesired impurity contamination can be considerably suppressed.
The charge collection efficiency of a diode with a retrograde well was estimated using focused ion beam irradiation at 400 keV and 2 MeV. The retrograde well was found to effectively suppress a collection of charge carriers created by energetic particles. The charge collection efficiency of the diode with the retrograde well was ~ 25 % lower than that with the conventional well when 400 keV ~ 2 MeV protons were irradiated normal to diodes. This result was in good agreement with device simulation.
Low energy (100 eV) impinging of carbon (C+) ions was made during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of GaAs using combined ion beam and molecular beam epitaxy (CIBMBE) technologies for the growth temperature ( Tg ) between 500 °C and 590 °C. 2 K photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering and Hall effect measurements were made for the samples. In the PL spectra two specific emissions, “g” and [g-g], were observed which are closely associated with acceptor impurities. PL and Hall effect measurements indicate that C atoms were very efficiently introduced during MBE growth by CIBMBE and were both optically and electrically well activated as acceptors even at Tg=500 °C. The results reveal that defect-free impurity doping without subsequent annealing can be achieved by CIBMBE method.
C-doped GaAs films were prepared by novely a developed, combined ion beam and molecular beam method (CIBMBE) as a function of hyperthermal (30–500 eV) energies (EC+) of carbon ion (C+) beam. Ion beams of a fixed beam current density were impinged during molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs at substrate temperature of 550 °C. Low temperature (2 K) photoluminescence (PL) has been used to characterize the samples together with Hall effects measurements at room temperature. Through the spectral evolution of an emission denoted by [g-g]β which is a specific emission relevant to acceptor-acceptor pairs, the activation rate was confirmed to increase with increasing EC+ for EC+ lower than 170 eV. It was explicitly demonstrated that the most effective Ec+ to establish highest activation rate is located at ~170 eV. This growing activation rate was suggested to be attributed to the enhanced migration of both impinged C and host constituent atoms with increasing EC+. This surmise was supported also by Hall effect measurements which revealed the maximum net hole concentration ( |NA-ND| ) for EC+=170 eV. For EC+ higher than ~170 eV, increasing EC+ was found to induce the reduction of activation rate. It was suggested that this observation is ascribed not to the formation of C donors but to the enhanced sputtering effect of impinged C+ ions with increasing EC+.
A carbon nanotube triode using Helicon Plasma-enhanced CVD with electroplated NiCo catalyst has been successfully fabricated. Isolated NiCo based metal catalyst was deposited at the bottom of the cathode wells by electroplating methods to control the density of carbon nanotubes and also reduce the activation energy of its growth. Helicon Plasma-enhanced CVD (HPECVD) has been used to deposit nanotubes at 400°C. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were then grown selectively on the electroplated Ni catalyst. Field emission measurements were performed with a triode structure. At a cathode to anode gap of 1.1mm, the turn on voltage for the gate was 170V.
Intensive physical exercise may cause muscular injury and increase oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an antioxidant, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), on muscular injury and oxidative stress during exercise training. Eighteen male students, all elite Japanese kendo athletes, were randomly assigned to either a CoQ10 group (n 10) or a placebo group (n 8) in a double-blind manner. Subjects in the CoQ10 group took 300 mg CoQ10 per d for 20 d, while subjects in the placebo group took the same dosage of a placebo. All subjects practised kendo 5·5 h per d for 6 d during the experimental period. Blood samples were taken 2 weeks before, during (1 d, 3 d, 5 d) and 1 week after the training. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and myoglobin (Mb) concentration significantly increased in both groups (at 3 d and 5 d). Serum CK (at 3 d), Mb (at 3 d) and lipid peroxide (at 3 d and 5 d) of the CoQ10 group were lower than those of the placebo group. The leucocyte counts in the placebo group significantly increased (at 3 d) and neutrophils significantly increased in both groups (at 3 d and 5 d). Serum scavenging activity against superoxide anion did not change in either group. These results indicate that CoQ10 supplementation reduced exercise-induced muscular injury in athletes.
Nanocomposite materials consisting of ZrO2 and Pd phases were prepared by heating the amorphous Zr65Pd35 alloy for 24 h at 553 K in air. The maximum hydrogen absorption amount is about 2.4 mass% (H2/Pd) at 323 K and 2.2 mass% (H2/Pd) at 423 K at hydrogen pressure of 1 MPa. The absorption amount of Pd nanoparticles in the nanocomposite is a few times larger than those for the bulk and powder Pd metals. The remarkable increase in the hydrogen absorption/desorption amounts seems to result from the isolated dispersion state of Pd nanoparticles in the ZrO2 phase containing a tremendously large interface area in the nanocomposite.
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