In this work we discuss and analyze spiking patterns in a generic mathematical model of
two coupled non-identical nonlinear oscillators supplied with a spike-timing dependent
plasticity (STDP) mechanism. Spiking patterns in the system are shown to converge to a
phase-locked state in a broad range of parameters. Precision of the phase locking, i.e.
the amplitude of relative phase deviations from a given reference, depends on the natural
frequencies of oscillators and, additionally, on parameters of the STDP law. These
deviations can be optimized by appropriate tuning of gains (i.e. sensitivity to
spike-timing mismatches) of the STDP mechanisms. The deviations, however, can not be made
arbitrarily small neither by mere tuning of STDP gains nor by adjusting synaptic weights.
Thus if accurate phase-locking in the system is required then an additional tuning
mechanism is generally needed. We found that adding a very simple adaptation dynamics in
the form of slow fluctuations of the base line in the STDP mechanism enables accurate
phase tuning in the system with arbitrary high precision. The scheme applies to systems in
which individual oscillators operate in the oscillatory mode. If the dynamics of
oscillators becomes bistable then relative phase may fail to converge to a given value
giving rise to the emergence of complex spiking sequences.