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This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.
Animal proteins are naturally 15N enriched relative to the diet and the extent of this difference (Δ15Nanimal-diet or N isotopic fractionation) has been correlated to N use efficiency (NUE; N gain or milk N yield/N intake) in some recent ruminant studies. The present study used meta-analysis to investigate whether Δ15Nanimal-diet can be used as a predictor of NUE across a range of dietary conditions, particularly at the level of between-animal variation. An additional objective was to identify variables related to N partitioning explaining the link between NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet. Individual values from eight publications reporting both NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet for domestic ruminants were used to create a database comprising 11 experimental studies, 41 treatments and individual animal values for NUE (n=226) and Δ15Nanimal-diet (n=291). Data were analyzed by mixed-effect regression analysis taking into account experimental factors as random effects on both the intercept and slope of the model. Diets were characterized according to the INRA feeding system in terms of N utilization at the rumen, digestive and metabolic levels. These variables were used in a partial least squares regression analysis to predict separately NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet variation, with the objective of identifying common variables linking NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet. For individuals reared under similar conditions (within-study) and at the same time (within-period), the variance of NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet not explained by dietary treatments (i.e. between-animal variation plus experimental error) was 35% and 55%, respectively. Mixed-effect regression analysis conducted with treatment means showed that Δ15Nanimal-diet was significantly and negatively correlated to NUE variation across diets (NUE=0.415 −0.055×Δ15Nanimal-diet). When using individual values and taking into account the random effects of study, period and diet, the relationship was also significant (NUE=0.358 −0.035×Δ15Nanimal-diet). However, there may be a biased prediction for animals close to zero, or in negative, N balance. When using a novel statistical approach, attempting to regress between-animal variation in NUE on between-animal variation in Δ15Nanimal-diet (without the influence of experimental factors), the negative relationship was still significant, highlighting the ability of Δ15Nanimal-diet to capture individual variability. Among the studied variables related to N utilization, those concerning N efficiency use at the metabolic level contributed most to predict both Δ15Nanimal-diet and NUE variation, with rumen fermentation and digestion contributing to a lesser extent. This study confirmed that on average Δ15Nanimal-diet can predict NUE variation across diets and across individuals reared under similar conditions.
There are two marine species in the genus Ozobranchus. Ozobranchus branchiatus mainly parasitizes green turtles and O. margoi parasitizes most turtle species. We used sequences for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI sequence analysis), along with morphological diagnosis, to compare the population genetic structures of O. branchiatus and O. margoi collected near Taiwan to those of their populations in the Atlantic. The results provide estimates of the genetic divergence between these leeches in the two regions. Ozobranchus branchiatus had a greater pairwise distance within Taiwan (0.0031–0.0141) than O. margoi (no differences). Phylogenetic tree analysis identified one O. branchiatus clade and one O. margoi clade in Taiwan. The better environmental adaptability and lower host specificity of O. margoi might result in lower genetic divergence among populations.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are high-strength sustainable nanomaterials, the
incorporation of which to a host polymer matrix can potentially lead to
nanocomposites with superior mechanical properties. However, the mismatch in
surface energy of CNCs and common structural polymers is a challenge that needs
to be overcome to prevent the aggregation of CNCs and ensure the robust
integration of CNCs into a polymer matrix. Herein, we report an approach
involving the functionalization of CNCs with maleated-anhydride polypropylene
(MAPP) through diethylenetriamine (DETA) linkers to significantly enhance the
compatibility between CNCs and polypropylene. Polypropylene/modified CNC
nanocomposites displayed 74% and 76% increase in elastic modulus in comparison
to neat polypropylene and polypropylene/untreated CNC nanocomposites,
respectively. The tensile strength was also higher for nanocomposites with
modified CNC than neat polypropylene, as well as nanocomposites with untreated
CNCs. The tensile strength at 5.5% strain of polypropylene/modified CNC
nanocomposites was 32% and 28% larger that of polypropylene and
polypropylene/untreated CNC nanocomposites, respectively. Finally, such
CNC-based nanocomposites have a lower density than many competitive systems
resulting in opportunities to propagate this environmentally-responsible
technology to nanocomposites used in additive manufacturing, automotive
applications, construction materials and consumer products.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Undoped layers of GaN grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates have been characterized by photoluminescence, photocapacitance and photoinduced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Photocapacitance reveals in all samples two specific signatures at photon energies of 1 eV and 2.5 eV. The photocapacitance decrease observed at 1 eV seems to be due to an electron capture process from the valence band, whereas the capacitance increase at 2.5 eV is related to an electron emission process. The fact that the capacitance step at 1 eV is only seen after photoionization at energies above 2.5 eV, and the observed correlation between its amplitude and the photoluminescence intensity of the “yellow band”, lead us to conclude that both transitions are linked to the same trap, which is also suggested to be responsible for the yellow band. The position of this trap, at 2.5 eV below the conduction band, is confirmed by PICTS measurements, that show a hole thermal emission activation energy of 0.9 eV at 350 K.
AIDA (Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment) is a project of a joint mission demonstration of asteroid deflection and characterisation of the kinetic impact effects. It involves the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (with support from members of NASA centers including Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and the European Space Agency (with support from members of the french CNRS/Cte dAzur Observatory and the german DLR). This assessment will be done using a binary asteroid target. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission concepts, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterisation spacecraft. The objective and status of the project will be presented.
Studies have criticized the low level of agreement between the various methods of personality disorder (PD) assessment. This is an important issue for research and clinical purposes.
Seven hundred and forty-two participants in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorders Study (HEPS) were assessed on two occasions using the Personality Disorder Schedule (PDS) and the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). The concordance between the two diagnostic methods for all DSM-IV PDs was assessed using standard methods and also two item response analytic approaches designed to take account of measurement error: a latent trait-based approach and a generalized estimating equations (GEE)-based approach, with post-hoc adjustment.
Raw criteria counts, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), κ and odds ratio (OR), showed poor concordance. The more refined statistical methods showed a moderate to moderately high level of concordance between the methods for most PDs studied. Overall, the PDS produced lower prevalences of traits but higher precision of measurement than the IPDE. Specific criteria within each PD showed varying endorsement thresholds and precision for ascertaining the disorder.
Concordance in the raw measurement of the individual PD criteria between the two clinical methods is lacking. However, based on two statistical methods that adjust for differential endorsement thresholds and measurement error in the assessments, we deduce that the PD constructs themselves can be measured with a moderate degree of confidence regardless of the clinical approach used. This may suggest that the individual criteria for each PD are, in and of themselves, less specific for diagnosis, but as a group the criteria for each PD usefully identify specific PD constructs.
Nanocrystalline silicon is a candidate material for fabricating thin film transistors with high carrier mobilities on plastic substrates. A major issue in the processing of nanocrystalline silicon thin film transistors (nc-Si:H TFTs) at ultralow temperatures is the quality of the SiO2 gate dielectric. SiO2 deposited at less than 250°C by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD), and not annealed at high temperature after deposition, exhibits high leakage current and voltage shifts when incorporated into TFT's. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements show that the hydrogen concentration (NH) in PECVD oxide deposited at 150°C on crystalline silicon (x-Si) is ∼ 0.8 at. %. This is much higher than in thermal oxides on x-Si, which display concentrations of less than 0.003 at. %. The leakage current density for thermal oxides on x-Si at a bias of 10 V is ∼9×10−6 A/cm2 whereas for 200°C PECVD oxides on nc-Si:H the current is ∼1×10−4 A/cm2. As the temperature of the SiO2 deposition is reduced to 150°C the current density rises by up to two orders of magnitude more. The H which is suspected to cause the leakage current across the PECVD oxide originates from the nc-Si:H substrate and the SiH4 source gas. We analyzed the 300-nm gate oxide in capacitor structures of Al / SiO2 /n+ nc-Si:H / Cr / glass, Al / SiO2 / n+ nc-Si:H / x-Si, and Al / SiO2 / x-Si. Vacuum annealing the nc-Si:H prior to PECVD of the oxide drives H out of the nc-Si:H film and reduces the amount of H incorporated into the oxide that is deposited on top. SiO2 film deposition from SiH4 and N2O at high He dilution has a still greater effect on lowering NH. The leakage current at a 10 V bias dropped from ∼1×10−4 A/cm2 to about ∼2×10−6 A/cm2 using He dilution at 250°C, and the vacuum anneal of the nc-Si:H lowered it by an additional factor of two. Thus we observe that both the nc-Si:H anneal and the SiO2 deposition at high He dilution lessen the gate leakage current.
Top gate n-channel thin film transistors (TFTs) of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) were fabricated on Kapton polyimide film substrates at a maximum process temperature of 15°C. These are thefirst nc-Si:H TFTs ever made on a plastic substrate. Both intrinsic and n+ source/drain layers were directly deposited at 80 MHz excitation frequency for high growth rate. Coplanar TFTs with top source/drains and staggered TFTs with bottom source/drains were made. The coplanar top gate and top source/drain structures have linear electron mobility of ∼ 30 cm2V-1s-1 and ON/OFF ratio up to ∼ 105. TFTs with the top gate and bottom source/drain structure made to date have linear mobility of up to ∼ 12 cm2V-1s-1 and ON/OFF ratio of ∼105.
Nanosized lithium manganate powders are successfully synthesized via a newly developed reverse-microemulsion (RμE) process. Monophasic LiMn2O4 powders are obtained after calcining the precursor powders at 700°C. The particle size of the spinel compound significantly depends on the concentration of the aqueous phase. Increasing the water-to-oil volume ratio results in an increase in the particle size. While the aqueous phase is equal to 0.5 M, the size of the obtained LiMn2O4 powder is around 60-70 nm. It is found that the specific capacity of nanosized LiMn2O4 particles is greater than that of submicron particles. The large surface area of ultrafine particles is considered to facilitate the intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions during the cycling test.
The epitaxial growth of near noble silicides, including CoSi2, NiSi2, FeSi2, Pd2 Si, and PtSi on (111)Si, by rapid thermal annealing was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Single-crystalline CoSi2 was formed on (111)Si in the solid phase epitaxy regime by a non-ultra-high vacuum method. The effect on gas ambient was found to be of critical importance on the growth of single-crystal CoSi2 on (111)Si. The best NiSi2, FeSi2, Pd2 Si, and PtSi epitaxy grown on (111)Si by rapid thermal annealing were found to be of comparable quality to those grown by conventional furnace annealing.
Deep levels in the annealed low-temperature molecular beam epitaxial (LT-MBE) GaAs layer were successfully characterized by using the capacitance deep-level transient spectroscopy (C-DLTS) as well as photocapacitance quenching technique in combination with a unique sample structure. In this work, we have fabricated the samples by inserting the LT-GaAs layer into two n-type semi-conductive layers, like a sandwich (n-LT-n structure), grown at normal substrate temperatures. DLTS measurements have revealed that one electron trap dominates the annealed LT-MBE GaAs. The dominant electron trap was very similar to the so-called EL3 level. Moreover, we found the midgap level appeared upon 800-900°C RTA, although no midgap level was detected in the as-grown n-LT-n sample (annealed at 620°C) and confirmed with photoquenching measurements that it is the EL2 level.