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A program was developed to predict d-spacings and intensities for peaks of binary phases, using data of the stoichiometric compositions as a basis, and was extended for ternary systems. Predicted data were compared with results from a series of alloys in the Ni-Ru-Al system, spanning the system near 50 atomic % aluminum, to ascertain the extension of the RuAl and NiAl intermetallic compounds into the ternary system. The microstructures mainly appeared cored, and one sample was single phase.
The program enabled easy identification of the peaks, and also allowed comparison of experimental data with predicted ordered and random spectra.
Two fatal drumming-related inhalational anthrax incidents occurred in 2006 and 2008 in the UK. One individual was a drum maker and drummer from the Scottish Borders, most likely infected whilst playing a goat-skin drum contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores; the second, a drummer and drum maker from East London, likely became infected whilst working with contaminated animal hides.
We have collated epidemiological and environmental data from these incidents and reviewed them alongside three similar contemporaneous incidents in the USA. Sampling operations recovered the causative agent from drums and drum skins and from residences and communal buildings at low levels. From these data, we have considered the nature of the exposures and the number of other individuals likely to have been exposed, either to the primary infection events or to subsequent prolonged environmental contamination (or both).
Despite many individual exposures to widespread low-level spore contamination in private residences and in work spaces for extended periods of time (at least 1 year in one instance), only one other individual acquired an infection (cutaneous). Whilst recognising the difficulty in making definitive inferences from these incidents to specific residual contamination levels, and by extending the risk to public health, we believe it may be useful to reflect on these findings when considering future incident management risk assessments and decisions in similar incidents that result in low-level indoor contamination.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Introduction: Patients with advanced malignant and non-malignant disease (advanced disease—AD) who do not want or benefit from aggressive resuscitation may unfortunately receive such treatments if unable to communicate in an emergency. Timely access to patients’ resuscitation wishes is imperative for treating physicians and for medical information systems. Our aim was to determine what proportion of emergency department (ED) patients with AD have accurate, readily accessible resuscitation status documentation. Methods: This cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care ED during purposefully sampled random accrual times in summer 2016. We enrolled all patients with: 1) palliative care consultation, 2) metastatic malignancy, 3) COPD or CHF on home oxygen, 4) hemodialysis, or 5) advanced neurodegenerative disease/dementia. The primary outcome was the retrieval of any existing resuscitation status documents. Documentation was obtained from a standardized review of forms accompanying the patient (“arrival documents”) and electronic medical record (“EMR”). We measured the time to retrieve this documentation, and interviewed consenting patients to corroborate documentation with their current wishes. Results: Of 85 enrolled patients, only 33 (39%) had any documentation of resuscitation status: 28 (33%) had goals of care retrieved from the hospital EMR, and 11 (15%) from arrival documents (some had both). Patients from long-term care facilities were more likely to have documentation available (odds ratio 13 [95% CI 2.5-65] vs community-living). Of 32 patients who were able to be interviewed, 20 (63%) expressed “do not resuscitate” wishes. Ten of these 20 lacked any documents to support their expressed resuscitation wishes. Previously expressed resuscitation wishes took more than 5 minutes to be retrieved in 3 cases when not filed “one click deep” in our EMR. Conclusion: The majority of patients with AD, including half of those who would not wish resuscitation from cardiorespiratory arrest, did not have goals of care documents readily available upon arrival to the ED. Patients living in the community with AD appear to be at high risk for unwanted resuscitative treatments should they present to hospital in extremis. Having documentation of their goals of care that is easily retrievable from the EMR shows promise, though issues of retrieval, accuracy, and validity remain important considerations.
Signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) agreed to the effective protection of at least 17% of the terrestrial environment by 2020 (Aichi Target 11). Here, we assess the coverage of terrestrial protected areas (land protected by legislation) on the UK's Overseas Territories. These 14 Territories are under the sovereignty of the UK, a signatory of the CBD, and are particularly biodiverse. Eight Territories have protected areas covering 17% or more of their land, but the extent of protection across these Territories as a whole is low, with only 4.8% of this land designated as protected. This protection covered 51% of sites already identified as of conservation importance (Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas), although only 8% of the area of these sites was protected. The expansion of effective protection to meet the 17% target provides an opportunity to capture the most important sites for conservation. Locally led designation will require an improvement in knowledge of the distribution and density of species. This, together with measures to ensure that the protection is enforced and effective, will require provision of resources. This should be seen as an investment in the UK meeting its obligations to Aichi Target 11.
We positionally match sources observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey. Practically all 2MASS sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ~11% of them are optically resolved galaxies and the rest are dominated by stars. About 1/3 of FIRST sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ~80% of these are galaxies and the rest are dominated by quasars. Based on these results, we project that by the completion of these surveys the matched samples will include about 107 stars and 106 galaxies observed by both SDSS and 2MASS, and about 250,000 galaxies and 50,000 quasars observed by both SDSS and FIRST. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical, infrared and radio properties for the extragalactic sources from the matched samples. In particular, we find that the fraction of quasars with stellar colors missed by the SDSS spectroscopic survey is probably not larger than ~10%, and that the optical colors of radio-loud quasars are ~0.05 mag. redder (with 4σ significance) than the colors of radio-quiet quasars.
Background: Ciliary mutations cause multi-system disorders, often involving the CNS. We set to evaluate the prevalence of ciliary dysfunction in children with isolated neuroanatomical defects, by measuring nasal nitric oxide (nNO), a screening test for Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD). Study design: We measured nNO levels of 26 children with congenital midline CNS defects. We evaluated the effect of age, gender, and anomaly (brain, spinal cord, or combined) on measurements. We compared our results to the previously established normal range (153.6-509.9 nL/min), and to the cutoff for PCD (77 nL/min). Results: The range for nNO in our cohort was 56.5-334.7 nL/min, with age, gender, and anomaly not having a significant effect. The overall mean, 217.7 nL/min, was significantly lower than that of normal children, 314.51 nL/min (p<0.01). Four subjects (15.4%) had nNO levels below the lower end of normal, with two (7.7%) having values fitting the cutoff for PCD. Conclusions: We report an association between ciliary dysfunction and isolated midline neuroanatomical defects, not in context of any known syndrome. This suggests that genes causing isolated CNS defects, may be implied in the function of cilia. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate whether children with abnormal measurements suffer from any respiratory sequelae.
The 2013 multistate outbreaks contributed to the largest annual number of reported US cases of cyclosporiasis since 1997. In this paper we focus on investigations in Texas. We defined an outbreak-associated case as laboratory-confirmed cyclosporiasis in a person with illness onset between 1 June and 31 August 2013, with no history of international travel in the previous 14 days. Epidemiological, environmental, and traceback investigations were conducted. Of the 631 cases reported in the multistate outbreaks, Texas reported the greatest number of cases, 270 (43%). More than 70 clusters were identified in Texas, four of which were further investigated. One restaurant-associated cluster of 25 case-patients was selected for a case-control study. Consumption of cilantro was most strongly associated with illness on meal date-matched analysis (matched odds ratio 19·8, 95% confidence interval 4·0–∞). All case-patients in the other three clusters investigated also ate cilantro. Traceback investigations converged on three suppliers in Puebla, Mexico. Cilantro was the vehicle of infection in the four clusters investigated; the temporal association of these clusters with the large overall increase in cyclosporiasis cases in Texas suggests cilantro was the vehicle of infection for many other cases. However, the paucity of epidemiological and traceback information does not allow for a conclusive determination; moreover, molecular epidemiological tools for cyclosporiasis that could provide more definitive linkage between case clusters are needed.
The excavations of the cemetery groups at Balneaves, Loanleven and Park of Tongland facilitate an examination of many aspects of Bronze Age burial practices in Scotland. They are notable as much for the differences in burial ritual they imply as for the very narrow chronological period in which they were used. The three sites produced a total of seventeen 14C dates, two of which are aberrant, with means of the remaining fifteen falling within a period of 250 years (3370–3610 bp in radiocarbon years). The excavations were sponsored by Historic Scotland (formerly Historic Buildings and Monuments, Scotland).
At Balneaves, a penannular ditch enclosed sixteen features, including a group of seven pits with cremation burials, four of which were associated with a distinctive assemblage of collared urns. The cremated bone was well preserved. At least one large standing stone had been erected on the site, and this was buried in the medieval period.
At Loanleven, only a segment of the enclosing ring-ditch survived, within which were four cists, two containing inhumations and two cremations, one of the latter (Cist 2) associated with a fragment of a food vessel. A decorated slab, in so-called ‘Passage Grave Style’, was recovered from Cist 1, and the same cist produced palynological evidence for grave furnishings in the form of a mat of plant material which probably underlay the body. 14C dates give a terminus ante quem of 3620±50 bp (GU–2543) for the re-use of the decorated slab, and a terminus post quem of 3410±50 bp (GU–2542) for the food vessel grave.
Park of Tongland, regarded as a Four-Poster stone circle, was excavated after the fall of a standing stone. It was shown to be of multi-period construction, consisting of a cairn which overlay seven pits containing fragmentary cremation burials, two associated with collared urns. The standing stones may not all have been erect at the same time. A series of 14C dates fell within the range of 1480–1530 bc.
A community outbreak of legionellosis occurred in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, during July and August 2002. A descriptive study and active case-finding were instigated and all known wet cooling systems and other potential sources were investigated. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism of clinical human and environmental isolates confirmed the air-conditioning unit of a council-owned arts and leisure centre to be the source of infection. Subsequent sequence-based typing confirmed this link. One hundred and seventy-nine cases, including seven deaths [case fatality rate (CFR) 3·9%] were attributed to the outbreak. Timely recognition and management of the incident very likely led to the low CFR compared to other outbreaks. The outbreak highlights the responsibility associated with managing an aerosol-producing system, with the potential to expose and infect a large proportion of the local population and the consequent legal ramifications and human cost.
During 2012 real-time syndromic surveillance formed a key part of the daily public health surveillance for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. It was vital that these systems were evaluated prior to the Games; in particular what types and scales of incidents could and could not be detected. Different public health scenarios were created covering a range of potential incidents that the Health Protection Agency would require syndromic surveillance to rapidly detect and monitor. For the scenarios considered it is now possible to determine what is likely to be detectable and how incidents are likely to present using the different syndromic systems. Small localized incidents involving food poisoning are most likely to be detected the next day via emergency department surveillance, while a new strain of influenza is more likely to be detected via GP or telephone helpline surveillance, several weeks after the first seed case is introduced.
This paper considers the reported attack ratio arising from outbreaks of influenza in enclosed societies. These societies are isolated from the wider community and have greater opportunities for contact between members which would aid the spread of disease. While the particular kind of society (prison, care home, school, barracks, etc.) was not a significant factor in an adjusted model of attack ratio, a person's occupation within the society was. In particular, children and military personnel suffer a greater attack ratio than other occupational types (staff, prisoners, etc.). There was no temporal trend in final attack ratio nor, with the exception of 1918, do pandemic years show abnormal attack ratios. We also observed that as community size increases, the attack ratio undergoes steep nonlinear decline. This statistical analysis draws attention to how the organization of such societies, their size and the occupations of individuals within them affect the final attack ratio.
We are developing a purely commensal survey experiment for fast (<5 s) transient radio sources. Short-timescale transients are associated with the most energetic and brightest single events in the Universe. Our objective is to cover the enormous volume of transients parameter space made available by ASKAP, with an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and field of view. Fast timescale transients open new vistas on the physics of high brightness temperature emission, extreme states of matter and the physics of strong gravitational fields. In addition, the detection of extragalactic objects affords us an entirely new and extremely sensitive probe on the huge reservoir of baryons present in the IGM. We outline here our approach to the considerable challenge involved in detecting fast transients, particularly the development of hardware fast enough to dedisperse and search the ASKAP data stream at or near real-time rates. Through CRAFT, ASKAP will provide the testbed of many of the key technologies and survey modes proposed for high time resolution science with the SKA.
Rangea is the type genus of the Rangeomorpha, an extinct clade near the base of the evolutionary tree of large, complex organisms which prospered during the late Neoproterozoic. It represents an iconic Ediacaran taxon, but the relatively few specimens previously known significantly hindered an accurate reconstruction. Discovery of more than 100 specimens of Rangea in two gutter casts recovered from Farm Aar in southern Namibia significantly expands this data set, and the well preserved internal and external features on these specimens permit new interpretations of Rangea morphology and lifestyle. Internal structures of Rangea consist of a hexaradial axial bulb that passes into an axial stalk extending the length of the fossil. The axial bulb is typically filled with sediment, which becomes increasingly loosely packed and porous distally, with the end of the stalk typically preserved as an empty, cylindrical cone. This length of the axial structure forms the structural foundation for six vanes arranged radially around the axis, with each vane consisting of a bilaminar sheet composed of a repetitive pattern of elements exhibiting at least three orders of self-similar branching. Rangea was probably an epibenthic frond that rested upright on the sea bottom, and all known fossil specimens were transported prior to their final burial in storm deposits.
Fe-50 wt% Co alloy powders with average particle size of 10 μm were compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 700, 800, 900 and 950oC by applying 40, 80, 100 MPa uniaxial pressures for 2, 5, 10 minutes. The densities of the samples were found to increase with temperature from 700 to 900oC for constant sintering pressure and time and to decrease for the material sintered at 950oC. The effects of sintering time on density were more significant in samples sintered at 700oC and 800oC than those densified at 900oC. The consequences of small increases in mechanical pressure during sintering on density values were significant for samples sintered at 700oC. The coercivity (Hc) of the compacts decreased significantly with increasing sintering temperature, and with increasing dwell time at sintering temperatures lower than 700oC. The sample sintered at 950oC, which contains the largest grains among the prepared samples and porous microstructure, exhibited the minimum coercivity. Unlike Hc, the remanence (Br) and saturation induction (Bsat) values were more strongly affected by the specimen density than by grain size. Br and Bsat values were found to vary linearly with sintering temperature and pressure owing to increasing density. An increase in soaking time at 800 and 900 oC, although enabling higher density, exhibited contradicting effects on Bsat values. The SPS parameters to obtain maximum density and optimum magnetic properties for Fe-50% Co alloy were found to be 900oC, 80 MPa and 2-5 minutes.
Clinical depression is associated with reductions in white-matter integrity in several long tracts of the brain. The extent to which these findings are localized or related to depressive symptoms or personality traits linked to disease risk remains unclear.
Members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC936) were assessed in two waves at mean ages of 70 and 73 years. At wave 1, they underwent assessments of depressive symptoms and the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion. Brain diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained at the second wave and mood assessments were repeated. We tested whether depressive symptoms were related to reduced white-matter tract fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of integrity, and then examined whether high neuroticism or low extraversion mediated this relationship.
Six hundred and sixty-eight participants provided useable data. Bilateral uncinate fasciculus FA was significantly negatively associated with depressive symptoms at both waves (standardized β=0.12–0.16). Higher neuroticism and lower extraversion were also significantly associated with lower uncinate FA bilaterally (standardized β=0.09–0.15) and significantly mediated the relationship between FA and depressive symptoms.
Trait liability to depression and depressive symptoms are associated with reduced structural connectivity in tracts connecting the prefrontal cortex with the amygdala and anterior temporal cortex. These effects suggest that frontotemporal disconnection is linked to the etiology of depression, in part through personality trait differences.