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Evidence regarding the association between BMI and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the impact of BMI on TB-specific and non-TB-specific mortality with respect to different timing of death. All Taiwanese adults with TB in Taipei were included in a retrospective cohort study in 2012–2014. Multinomial Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the associations between BMI, cause-specific mortality and timing of death. Of 2410 eligible patients, 86·0 % (2061) were successfully treated, and TB-specific and non-TB-specific mortality occurred for 2·2 % (54) and 13·9 % (335), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, underweight was significantly associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1·57; 95 % CI 1·26, 1·95), whereas overweight was not. When cause-specific death was considered, underweight was associated with an increased risk of either TB-specific (AHR 1·85; 95 % CI 1·03, 3·33) or non-TB-specific death (AHR 1·52; 95 % CI 1·19, 1·95) during treatment. With joint consideration of cause-specific and timing of death, underweight only significantly increased the risk of TB-specific (AHR 2·23; 95 % CI 1·09, 4·59) and non-TB-specific mortality (AHR 1·81; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·55) within the first 8 weeks of treatment. This study suggests that underweight increases the risk of early death in TB patients during treatment.
The sense of calling has emerged as a burgeoning research interest for the past decade due to its close connection to the meaningfulness of work. However, the effects of a sense of calling and how it functions in the workplace remain unclear. This study aims at enhancing the concept of calling and understanding its application in organizations. Therefore, a cross-level model was proposed according to data collected from 24 organizations in Taiwan. As a result, our study demonstrated that sense of calling is positively related to individual performance, and the supportive organizational climate also plays an important role in the relationship between sense of calling and contextual performance. Consequently, by incorporating factors at both the organizational and individual levels into the mechanism of calling, a valuable insight into and application of an individual’s sense of calling in the work context has been established, and management implications were also provided.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
We have assembled a new sample of some of the most FIR-luminous galaxies in the Universe and have imaged them in 1.1 mm dust emission and measured their redshifts 1 < z < 4 via CO emission lines using the 32-m Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM). Our sample of 31 submm galaxies (SMGs), culled from the Planck and Herschel all-sky surveys, includes 14 of the 21 most luminous galaxies known, with LFIR > 1014L⊙ and SFR > 104M⊙/yr. These extreme inferred luminosities – and multiple / extended 1.1 mm images – imply that most or all are strongly gravitationally lensed, with typical magnification μ ~ 10 × . The gravitational lensing provides two significant benefits: (1) it boosts the S/N, and (2) it allows investigation of star formation and gas processes on sub-kpc scales.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
This study aimed to analyse demographic profiles and pre-injection stroboscopic findings for patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, to investigate possible predictive factors for voice outcomes of injection laryngoplasty.
Materials and methods:
Fifty-nine unilateral vocal fold paralysis patients underwent vocal fold augmentation, using transcutaneous Artecoll (polymethyl methacrylate microspheres plus bovine collagen) injection into the paralysed vocal fold via the cricothyroid space. Three months later, patients were divided into improved (n = 44) and unimproved (n = 15) groups, using the perceptual grade-roughness-breathiness-asthenia-strain scale, and their clinical characteristics and pre-operative stroboscopic findings compared.
The improved group were significantly younger than the unimproved group (p = 0.000). The size of the posterior gap on phonation was closely associated with the outcome of injection laryngoplasty (p = 0.015).
Younger patients with a smaller posterior glottic gap on phonation can be expected to have a more favourable outcome following injection laryngoplasty for correction of glottic insufficiency due to unilateral vocal fold paralysis.
The family Dipterocarpaceae includes 470 tree species from 13 genera in South and South-East Asian tropical forests (Ashton 1982). Many dipterocarp species in aseasonal lowland rain forests of western Malesia flower synchronously during masting (or general flowering) events, which usually occur at irregular intervals of 2–10 y (Ashton et al. 1988). Very few individuals flower at other times, and successful recruitment of seedlings is limited to those masting events (Ashton et al. 1988, Curran et al. 1999).
We have fabricated GaN quantum dots (QDs) in AlN confined layer structures by molecular beam epitaxy. The size distribution and density of the QDs have been estimated from an atomic force microscopy study. Very high quantum efficiency of photoluminescence (PL) has been obtained in some samples with QDs. Compared to the GaN bulk samples, it increased by orders of magnitude. In some samples the quantum size effect dominated, resulting in the blue-shift of the QD related PL peak, whereas in the samples with larger dots a red-shift up to 0.8 eV has been observed, which is related to strong polarization effects. We have observed a blue-shift of the PL peak with excitation intensity in the samples with large dots due to screening effect. The temperature-induced quenching of PL occurs at higher temperatures compared to bulk GaN due to the confinement of nonequilibrium carriers in the QDs. An excited state has been observed in some samples.
A series of ZnO films with various thicknesses were prepared on (0001) sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were utilized to investigate the effects of misfit strain on the surface morphology and the crystallinity. The electrical and optical properties of the films were also investigated as a function of the film thickness. It was found that the crystalline quality, electrical and optical properties of the films depended on the film thickness and were improved with increasing the film thickness. This is attributed to the fact that the films thinner than 400 nm are under the severe misfit strain, which decreases as the film thickness increases further.
GaN dots have been grown on c-plane sapphire and (111) Si substrates by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. A new method involving two-dimensional growth followed by a controlled annealing during which dots are formed was employed. Due the dot nature and large dot density, relatively high luminescence efficiencies were obtained on both substrates. Single layer dots were used for AFM analysis whereas 30 layer dots were used for photoluminescence experiments. AlN barrier layers, some too thick for mechanical interaction, some thin enough for vertical coupling were used. Strong polarization effects lead to a sizeable red shift, which depends on the size of the dots.
Ferroelectric PbTiO3 and Lanthanum-modified PbTiO3 thin films have been deposited on different substrate surfaces by sol-gel processing. The ferroelectric, dielectric, and pyroelectric properties and their temperature dependences have been investigated. The sol-gel derived thin films were integrated onto a membrane structure fabricated by solid-state surface-micromachining technology. The performance of the resultant devices have been tested as an uncooled infrared detector. The high voltage responsivity and short rise time are attributed to the combination of the pyroelectric film, the underlying polycrystalline silicon layer, and the thermal design of the composite structure. The addition of Lanthanum with a molecular fraction of 3% and 5% has resulted in a lower dielectric loss and a reduced thermal noise.
The formation of submicron crystals of boron carbide (B4C) by rapid carbothermal reduction of intimately mixed carbon-boron oxide precursor powders in an aerosol flow reactor at temperatures above the boiling point of boron oxide is investigated. The employed high heating rates (105 K/s) of the process force release of gaseous boron oxide and suboxides and rupture of the precursor particles resulting in formation of boron carbide molecular clusters that grow to macroscopic particles by coagulation. Consequently, the formation and growth of B4C particles is described by simultaneous interparticle collision and coalescence using a two-dimensional distribution model that traces the evolution of both size and shape characteristics of the particles through their volume and surface area. Here, in addition to the coagulation term, the governing population balance equation includes a coalescence contribution based on B4C sintering law. The predicted evolution of the two-dimensional particle size distribution leads to a direct characterization of morphology as well as the average size and polydispersity of the powders. Furthermore, model predictions of the volume and surface area of boron carbide particles can be directly compared with experimental data of B4C specific surface area and grain size.
We present a new analytical model of amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (a-Si TFT) suitable for circuit simulators such as SPICE. The effects of localized gap state distributions of a-Si as well as temperatures on the a-Si TFT performances have been fully considered in the presented model. The parameters used in SPICE, such as transconductance, channel-length modulation, and power factor of source-drain current, are evaluated from the measured current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics by employing the proposed extraction method. It has been found out that the analytical model is in good agreement with experimental data at both room temperature and elevated temperature and successfully implemented in a widely used circuit simulator.
We have investigated the solid-phase crystallization of a-Si1-xGex:H (x=0 and 0.5) films by using electron spin resonance and x-ray diffraction. The films were deposited on Coming 1737 glass in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system using SiH4 and GeH4 gases. The films were then annealed to be crystallized at 600°C. It was observed that, for the a-Si:H film, both the spin density and the g-value first increased with annealing time, and then rapidly decreased as the film was crystallized. For the a-Si0.5Ge0.5:H film, the Ge dangling bond spin density increased from 3 × 1018 cm-3 to 2 × 1019 cm3 for the first stage of annealing and then decreased to 3 × 1017 cm-3 after being crystallized; the Si dangling bond spin density just increased to about 2 × 1017 cm-3 and remained nearly constant for further annealing. It is thought that exodiffusion of hydrogen resulted in the increase of spin density in the beginning, and then some portions of amorphous components were converted into the crystalline phase by further annealing. And the keen correlation between the dependence of x-ray peak intensity and the dependence of Ge dangling bond spin density on the annealing time suggests that the Ge dangling bonds rather than Si dangling bonds play an important role in the crystallization of the Si0.5Ge0.5 film.
A novel pulsed rapid thermal processing (PRTP) method has been used for realizing the solid-phase crystallization of amorphous silicon films prepared by PECVD. The microstructure and surface morphology of the crystallized films are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicate that this PRTP is a suitable postcrystallization technique for fabricating large-area polycrystalline silicon films with good structural qualities such as large grain size, small lattice microstain and smooth surface morphology on low-cost substrate.
The structural characteristics of MOCVD AlN films with different carbon doping concentrations grown on sapphire were investigated by XRD (θ–2θ scans, ϕ scans and rocking curves ), HRTEM and Auger spectroscopy. The AlN:C films have very high crystalline quality and low resistivity. The epitaxial relationship between AlN and Sapphire is: (0001)AlN //(0001)Sap, [ 12 10]AlN//[0 110] Sap and [10 10]AlN //[ 2110]Sap. With increasing carbon concentration, the AlN films have higher carrier concentrations, and lower resistivities even though they have higher defect density. The resistivity decreases by 8 orders of magnitude with C doping. When the carbon concentration reaches 11%, an interfacial layer of ∼5nm was observed in HRTEM images. This layer suggests that some C in the film is diffusing into the sapphire substrate. However, optical diffractograms obtained from the negatives of the HRTEM showed no appreciable change in the structure of the interfacial layer compared to the pure substrate.
(0001) aluminium nitride thin films were grown epitaxially on (0001) Sapphire substrates by MOCVD at 1200° C and PLD at 800° C. Both films have the same epitaxial growth relationship: (0001)AlN//(0001)Sap, and the same in-plane relationship which shows a 30° rotation between A1N and Sapphire: [ 12 10]AlN//[0 110]Sap and [10 10]AlN //[ 2110]Sap. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of x-ray rocking curve of the MOCVD A1N film was 0.16° and PLD A1N film was 0.2°. Films grown by both MOCVD and PLD showed high crystalline quality. HRTEM images showed that these films are single crystalline with very low density of defects.
Dislocations in the film parallel to the film / substrate interface were observed in both A1N films. Atomic force microscopy images showed that the MOCVD films have flatter and larger terraces than the PLD films. The PLD technique for A1N growth needs to be improved further. But both films have a surface roughness of approximately 100nm.