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This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
On Hawai‘i Island, an increase in human neuroangiostrongyliasis cases has been primarily associated with the accidental ingestion of Angiostrongylus cantonensis L3 in snails or slugs, or potentially, from larvae left behind in the slug's slime or feces. We evaluated more than 40 different treatments in vitro for their ability to kill A. cantonensis larvae with the goal of identifying a safe and effective fruit and vegetable wash in order to reduce the risk of exposure. Our evaluation of treatment lethality was carried out in two phases; initially using motility as an indicator of larval survival after treatment, followed by the development and application of a propidium iodide staining assay to document larval mortality. Treatments tested included common household products, consumer vegetable washes and agricultural crop washes. We found minimal larvicidal efficacy among consumer-grade fruit and vegetable washes, nor among botanical extracts such as those from ginger or garlic, nor acid solutions such as vinegar. Alkaline solutions, on the other hand, as well as oxidizers such as bleach and chlorine dioxide, did show larvicidal potential. Surfactants, a frequent ingredient in detergents that lowers surface tension, had variable results, but dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid as a 70% w/w solution in 2-propanol was very effective, both in terms of the speed and the thoroughness with which it killed A. cantonensis L3 nematodes. Thus, our results suggest promising directions for future investigation.
Cyclonic storms (often called hurricanes, typhoons, or cyclones) often cause population declines in vulnerable bird species, and the intensity of these storms appears to be increasing due to climate change. Prior studies have reported short-term impacts of hurricanes on avifauna, but few have examined long-term impacts. Over two decades (1993–2018), we periodically surveyed a subspecies of West Indian Woodpecker Melanerpes superciliaris nyeanus on San Salvador, a small island in The Bahamas, to determine its distribution on the island, habitat use, and effects of hurricanes on abundance and population size. We conducted passive and playback surveys, supplemented with mist-netting. Woodpeckers were found only in the northern part of San Salvador, despite extensive surveys throughout other accessible areas of the island. Birds occupied areas with taller coppice adjacent to sabal palm Sabal palmetto groves, which were used for nesting. After hurricanes with >160 kph winds passed over San Salvador, woodpecker densities declined to 35–40% of pre-hurricane densities, but generally recovered back to pre-hurricane densities within 2–3 years. Based on an estimated density of woodpeckers within a ~1,400 ha occupied area, we calculated a population size of approximately 240 individuals (CI = 68-408). However, the population declined to far lower numbers immediately following hurricanes. Under IUCN Red List criteria, M. s. nyeanus classifies as ‘Critically Endangered’, and could be especially sensitive to future hurricanes if they occur at a high enough frequency or intensity to prevent the population from rebounding. Given the small size, isolation, and vulnerability of this population, we recommend preservation of the core habitat, continued monitoring, and further research. Our study shows that small, threatened bird populations can be resilient to the effects of hurricanes, but increased intensity of hurricanes, in combination with other threats, may limit this resilience in the future.
We develop a simple model for the kinematics of charged particles in regions of magnetic turbulence. We approximate the local magnetic field as smoothly varying in strength and direction, where adiabatic invariance prevails, or as presenting rapid changes in direction or ‘kinks’. Particles execute guiding centre gyromotion around a field line. However, in analogy to kinetic theory for collisional environments, when the particle undergoes a rapid change in direction by some angle
, it would instantaneously transition to Larmor motion around the new field line. This mimics Brownian motion wherein we replace collisions with other particles by rapid transitions or ‘collisions’ with other field lines. Using standard methods drawn from Brownian motion, we follow the evolution of the parallel and perpendicular components of the velocity, namely
, and rigorously show that kinetic energy isotropization necessarily emerges.
The Brechin Lagerstätte of southern Ontario contains an exceptionally diverse and well-preserved Late Ordovician (Katian) crinoid fauna. We describe four genera and eight species of camerate crinoids from the Brechin Lagerstätte, including six new species. Consequently, the total diversity of the fauna now stands at 27 genera and 39 nominal species, thereby making it the most taxonomically diverse Ordovician crinoid fauna known. Taxa described include the diplobathrid Pararchaeocrinus kiddi new species and the monobathrids Glyptocrinus ramulosus Billings, 1856, Periglyptocrinus priscus (Billings, 1857a), Periglyptocrinus astricus new species, Periglyptocrinus kevinbretti new species, Periglyptocrinus mcdonaldi new species, Periglyptocrinus silvosus new species, and Abludoglyptocrinus steinheimerae new species. We summarize the taxonomic composition, diversity, and abundance distribution of all known crinoids from the Brechin Lagerstätte to better characterize the paleoecological structure and complexity of the community. We establish that the fauna is dominated by the subclass Pentacrinoidea, both in terms of abundance and species richness. In addition, we analyze species-level abundance data using Relative Abundance Distribution (RAD) models to evaluate the ecological complexity of the paleocommunity. We found that community structure of the Brechin Lagerstätte is best explained by an ecologically ‘complex’ RAD model, which suggests that species partitioned niches along multiple resource axes and/or the presence of multiple ecological ways of life. These results indicate that the Brechin Lagerstätte is significant not only for being the most taxonomically diverse Katian crinoid assemblage, but also for being an early ecologically complex fauna that developed in the wake of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.
Introduction: Blood transfusions continue to be a critical intervention in patients presenting to emergency departments (ED). Improved understanding of the adverse events associated with transfusions has led to new research to inform and delineate transfusion guidelines. The Nova Scotia Guideline for Blood Component Utilization in Adults and Pediatrics was implemented in June 2017 to reflect current best practice in transfusion medicine. The guideline includes a lowering of the hemoglobin threshold from 80 g/L to 70 g/L for transfusion initiation, to be used in conjunction with the patient's hemodynamic assessment before and after transfusions. Our study aims to augment understanding of transfusion guideline adherence and ED physician transfusing practices at the Halifax Infirmary Emergency Department in Nova Scotia. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on one third of all ED visits involving red-cell transfusions for one year prior to and one year following the guideline implementation. A total of 350 charts were reviewed. The primary data abstracted for the initial transfusion, and subsequent transfusion if applicable, from each reviewed chart included clinical and laboratory data reflective of the transfusion guideline. Based on these data, the transfusion event was classified one of three ways: indicated based on hemoglobin level, indicated based on patient's symptomatic presentation, or unable to determine if transfusion indicated based on charting. Results: The year before guideline implementation, the total number of transfusions initiated at a hemoglobin of between 71-80 was 31 of 146 total transfusions. This number dropped by 23.6% to 22 of 136 in the year following guideline implementation. The number of single-unit transfusions increased by 28.0% from 47 of 146 in the year prior to 56 of 136 in the year after guideline implementation. The initial indication for transfusion being unable to be determined based on charting provided increased by 120%. The indication for subsequent transfusions being unable to be determined based on charting increased by 1500% (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These data suggest that implementing transfusion guidelines effectively reduced the number of transfusions given in the ED setting and increased the number of single-unit transfusions administered. However, the data also suggest the need for better education around transfusion indications and proper documentation clearly outlining the rationale behind the decision to transfuse.
The Living Life to the Full college and free online courses are based on the Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) approach and is offered at Further Education Colleges and free of charge online (www.livinglifetothefull.com). The classes teaches key skills such as identifying and challenging unhelpful thoughts, problem solving etc.
In the college course, total mean scores at baseline for knowledge questions was 8.20 increasing to 11.07 gain 2.87 p=.042). Self assessed skills were 24.00 at baseline, increasing to 34.20 at session 8 (mean difference = 10.20 p=.001). The Training Acceptability Rating scale showed content scores at session 1 of 77% rising to 91% at session 8. Process scores were 73% at session 1 rising to 89%, showing training acceptability throughout the course. The online course has over 15,000 registered users. 70% are clinical cases of anxiety (HAD scale), and 55% depression. 24% of users are clinical cases and are not receiving any support from a practitioner. The site has had over 4 million hits in 10 months and an average of 1000 hits/hour.
Delivering CBT in this way seems to lead to gains in mental health literacy. Such courses may provide another useful option for helping people access CBT for mild to moderate problems of distress. A RCT of the core course materials has just been completed.
Dysfunctional impulsivity reflects ‘recklessness without deliberation and evaluation of consequences’ and has negative consequences whereas functional impulsivity reflects ‘rapid responding to situational demands in order to maximise one's circumstances’ and often has positive consequences (1).
To examine the functional brain basis of dysfunctional impulsivity in healthy people and in people with schizophrenia.
Thirteen healthy controls and 21 schizophrenia patients (10/21 with serious repetitive violence) underwent fMRI during a Go/ NoGo task. Dysfunctional impulsivity was indexed using the Impulsiveness subscale and functional impulsivity using the Venturesomeness subscale of the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (2).
Violent patients had elevated Impulsiveness scores relative to non-violent patients and controls. Impulsiveness did not correlate significantly with task performance in healthy controls or patients. Impulsiveness, but not Venturesomeness, scores correlated during the NoGO condition with lower activity in the anterior cingulate (AC) in controls, and lower inferior temporal and hippocampal activity in patients.
These findings accord with previously reported associations between reduced hippocampal volume and dysfunctional impulsivity in schizophrenia (3) and, combined with our earlier observations of reduced AC activation during a working memory task in violent antisocial individuals (4), suggest that the influence of dysfunctional impulsivity in antisocial and criminal behaviour is mediated via deficient (inhibitory) functions of the AC and hippocampus.
Abnormalities in event related potentials (ERPs) have long been looked at as markers of disease in Schizophrenia. Over recent years there is a trend in the field to move from averaged trials ERPs analysis in the time-voltage domain, to time-frequency single trials analysis. Oscillations in the Gamma band (30-50Hz) have received particular attention in the context of the theories of core deficits in neuronal synchronization in Schizophrenia. in this study we aimed at replicating previously found Gamma band deficits in a sample of Early Psychosis patients.
EEG was collected from 15 patients and 15 age matched controls using an auditory oddball paradigm. Time-frequency analysis in the Gamma band was performed using a Morlet wavelet transform. We tested differences between the groups using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, given the nonparametric nature of the data, to compare each group's average single trial Gamma power, maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio.
Patients with Early Psychosis showed, following target tones, a reduction in the total power of Gamma band activation (p< 0.01) as well as in induced Gamma band activation (p< 0.01). This was observed in a late latency interval at 400-500ms. the late burst of Gamma activity was not found in the frequent condition, for neither subjects group.
The findings are compatible with previous studies suggesting deficits in the late intrinsically generated cognitive processing of auditory stimuli in Schizophrenia, already present in its early stage. They add further evidence of deficits in neuronal synchronisation in the early stages of psychotic disorders.
There is increasing evidence for a neurobiological basis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), includinggenetic liability, aberrant serotonergic function, neuropsychological deficits and structural and functional brain abnormalities. However, few functional brain imaging studies have been conducted using tasks of clinically relevant functions such as impulse control and reinforcement processing. Here we report on a study investigating the neural basis of behavioural inhibition and reward sensitivity in ASPD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
17 medication-free male individuals with DSM IV ASPD and 14 healthy controls were included. All subjects were screened for Axis I pathology and substance misuse. Scanner tasks included two block design tasks: one Go/No-Go task and one reward task. Scanning was carried out on a 1.5T Phillips system. Whole brain coverage was achieved using 40 axial slices with 3.5mm spacing a TR of 5 seconds. Data were analysed using SPM5 using random effects models.
Results of the Go/No-Go task confirmed brain activation previously described in the processing of impulse inhibition, namely in the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate, and these were enhanced in the PD group. The reward task was associated with BOLD response changes in the reward network in both groups. However, these BOLD responses were reduced in the ASPD group, particularly in prefrontal areas.
Our results further support the notion of prefrontal dysfunction in ASPD. However, contrary to previous studies suggesting “hypofrontality” in this disorder, we found task specific increased and decreased BOLD responses.
Animals that are small, cryptic, nocturnal and arboreal are difficult to survey with accuracy. The relative neglect of elusive species is partly due to the additional time, money and effort required to undertake successful studies. This is likely to have contributed to the lorisiforms being named the ‘least known of all the primates’ (Nekaris and Bearder, 2011). Prior to the 1990s, few data existed on the distribution and abundance of slender lorises (Loris spp.), leading to their being listed by the IUCN Red List as Least Concern or Data Deficient. The first contemporary surveys of the distribution of Loris led to identification of one new species and the uncovering of low densities that elevated their threat level (Nekaris and Jayewardene, 2004a; Singh et al., 1999, 2000). Abundance estimates found that slender lorises are patchily distributed, even within a single forest reserve, and despite significant survey efforts some forest patches yielded no sightings (Nekaris and Jayewardene, 2004a). The heterogeneous distribution of Loris has been documented (Kumara et al., 2006; Nekaris and Jayewardene, 2004a; Nekaris et al 2013c; Singh et al., 1999). Encounter rates vary by location, habitat and species (2008). While a number of Loris surveys have now been conducted, the sites, survey modes, sampling techniques and data recorded vary across studies; consequently, results are not directly comparable (Table 26.1).
There is strong research evidence to support the pharmacological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a second line to trauma-focused psychological interventions. Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine are the best-evidenced drugs, with lower-level evidence for other medications. It is important that prescribing for PTSD is evidence-based.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Evidence from observational studies indicates that seaweed consumption may reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type two diabetes, and obesity. Accumulating evidence from in vitro and animal studies suggest seaweed have antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which may in part be attributed to the high content of soluble dietary fibre in seaweeds. The viscosity of seaweed fibres is suggested to mediate antihyperlipdiemic effects via the alteration of lipid/bile acid absorption kinetics to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL). Thus, there is a need to evaluate the efficacy of seaweed derived dietary fibre in the management of dyslipidemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a fibre rich extract from Palmaria palmata on the lipid profile as well as markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy adults. A total of 60 healthy participants (30 male and 30 female) aged 20 to 58 years, were assigned to consume the Palmaria palmata fibre extract (5g/day), Synergy-1 and the placebo (maltodextrin) for a duration of 4 weeks with a minimum 4 week washout between each treatment in a double blind, randomised crossover study conducted over 5 months. Fasting concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were analysed and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and LDL: HDL ratio was calculated. C-reactive protein (CRP) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) were analysed as markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. Supplementation for 4 weeks with Palmaria palmata resulted in favourable changes to lipid profiles with a reduced LDL:HDL ratio; however intention-to-treat univariate ANCOVA identified no significant difference between the treatment groups over time on any of the lipid profile markers. A non-significant increase in CRP and triglyceride concentration along with lower FRAP was also observed with Palmaria palmata supplementation. Evidence from this study suggests that Palmaria palmata may have effects on lipid metabolism and appears to mobilise triglycerides. More research is needed in individuals with dyslipidaemia to fully elucidate these effects.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
The Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research (MCTFR) comprises multiple longitudinal, community-representative investigations of twin and adoptive families that focus on psychological adjustment, personality, cognitive ability and brain function, with a special emphasis on substance use and related psychopathology. The MCTFR includes the Minnesota Twin Registry (MTR), a cohort of twins who have completed assessments in middle and older adulthood; the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) of twins assessed from childhood and adolescence into middle adulthood; the Enrichment Study (ES) of twins oversampled for high risk for substance-use disorders assessed from childhood into young adulthood; the Adolescent Brain (AdBrain) study, a neuroimaging study of adolescent twins; and the Siblings Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS), a study of adoptive and nonadoptive families assessed from adolescence into young adulthood. Here we provide a brief overview of key features of these established studies and describe new MCTFR investigations that follow up and expand upon existing studies or recruit and assess new samples, including the MTR Study of Relationships, Personality, and Health (MTR-RPH); the Colorado-Minnesota (COMN) Marijuana Study; the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study; the Colorado Online Twins (CoTwins) study and the Children of Twins (CoT) study.