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The 7 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children in many countries. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of PCVs and potential herd-protection in older adults in Ireland. IPD notification and typing data from adults ⩾65 years of age from July 2007 to June 2016 was assessed using national surveillance data. There was a 94% reduction in PCV7 serotypes from 2007–2008 to 2015–2016, incidence rate ratio (IRR 0·05, P < 0·0001). However, there was no decline in the additional PCV13 (PCV13-7) serotypes over the same period (IRR 0·90) nor in comparison with the pre-PCV13 period 2009–2010 (IRR 0·92). The incidence of serotypes in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine only (PPV23-PCV13) and non-vaccine types (NVTs) increased significantly (IRR 2·17, P = 0·0002 and IRR 3·43, P = 0·0001 respectively). Consequently, the overall IPD incidence rate in adults has remained relatively unchanged (from 28·66/100 000 to 28·88/100 000, IRR 1·01, P = 0·9477). Serotype 19A and NVTs were mainly responsible for penicillin resistance in recent years. The decline of PCV7 serotypes indicate that the introduction of PCV7 resulted in herd-protection for adults. However, increases in PPV23-PCV13 and NVTs suggest that changes in vaccination strategy amongst older adults are needed to build on the success of PCVs in children.
Rangea is the type genus of the Rangeomorpha, an extinct clade near the base of the evolutionary tree of large, complex organisms which prospered during the late Neoproterozoic. It represents an iconic Ediacaran taxon, but the relatively few specimens previously known significantly hindered an accurate reconstruction. Discovery of more than 100 specimens of Rangea in two gutter casts recovered from Farm Aar in southern Namibia significantly expands this data set, and the well preserved internal and external features on these specimens permit new interpretations of Rangea morphology and lifestyle. Internal structures of Rangea consist of a hexaradial axial bulb that passes into an axial stalk extending the length of the fossil. The axial bulb is typically filled with sediment, which becomes increasingly loosely packed and porous distally, with the end of the stalk typically preserved as an empty, cylindrical cone. This length of the axial structure forms the structural foundation for six vanes arranged radially around the axis, with each vane consisting of a bilaminar sheet composed of a repetitive pattern of elements exhibiting at least three orders of self-similar branching. Rangea was probably an epibenthic frond that rested upright on the sea bottom, and all known fossil specimens were transported prior to their final burial in storm deposits.
An adverse prenatal environment may induce long-term metabolic consequences, in particular hypertension and cardiovascular disease. A maternal low-protein (LP) diet is well known to result in increased blood pressure (BP) in offspring. Choline has been shown to have direct BP-reducing effects in humans and animals. It has been suggested that endogenous choline synthesis via phosphatidylcholine is constrained during maternal LP exposure. The present study investigates the effect of choline supplementation to mothers fed a LP diet during pregnancy on systolic BP (SBP) in offspring as measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. Wistar rats were assigned to one of three diets to be fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy: (1) control diet (CONT, 20% protein); (2) an LP diet (9% protein); and (3) LP supplemented with choline (LP + C). Dams were fed the CONT diet throughout lactation and offspring were fed the CONT diet from weaning for the remainder of the trial. At postnatal day 150, SBP and retroperitoneal fat mass was significantly increased in LP offspring compared with CONT animals and was normalized in LP + C offspring. Effects of LP + C reduction in SBP were similar in both males and females. Plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations were not different across treatment groups, but maternal choline supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in homocysteine concentrations in LP + C offspring compared with LP and CONT animals. The present trial shows for the first time that maternal supplementation with dietary choline during periods of LP exposure can normalize increased SBP and fat mass observed in offspring in later life.
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was included in the routine infant immunization schedule in Ireland in September 2008. We determined the serotype of 977 S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive disease between 2000–2002 and 2007–2008, assessed for the presence of the recently described serotype 6C and determined the susceptibility of isolates during 2007–2008 to penicillin and cefotaxime. Serotype 14 was the most common serotype during both periods and 7·7% of isolates previously typed as serotype 6A were serotype 6C. During 2000–2002 and 2007–2008, PCV7 could potentially have prevented 85% and 74% of invasive pneumococcal disease in the target population (i.e. children aged <2 years), respectively. The level of penicillin non-susceptibility was 17% in 2007–2008. Ongoing surveillance of serotypes is required to determine the impact of PCV7 in the Irish population and to assess the potential of new vaccines with expanded valency.
We have studied the effect of clonidine on gastric motility, by examining the effect on gastric emptying of indigestible solids. In Wistar rats, either clonidine or saline was injected intraperitoneally, and ten steel balls (1.0mm in diameter) were inserted into the stomach. Gastric emptying was examined at 3 h. Clonidine delayed gastric emptying of steel balls (ED50 = 0.0071 [95% confidence interval: 0.0033–0.013) mg kg−1). Yohimbine, but not naloxone, significantly antagonized the inhibitory effect of clonidine. We conclude that clonidine inhibits gastric motility through the alpha2 adrenoceptor.
This study of flow just beyond a breakaway-separation point presents a description of planar nonlinear unsteady effects over a fairly wide parameter range, for a subsonic or supersonic boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers. The inviscid model thus produced essentially contains a vortex sheet near the smooth solid surface, with local inner–outer interaction. The governing equations couple the eddy velocity and pressure with the thicknesses of the detached boundary layer and the eddy. The computational method presented here uses a new adaptive gridding technique intended to capture accurately the spiky solution behaviour that develops and to compare with theory. Analysis and computations point to a breakup in the solution, suggesting an explanation for the start of transition and possible turbulent reattachment as found experimentally. The influence of the detached boundary-layer thickness proves crucial. The type of finite-time breakup encountered is studied analytically and the criterion for its occurrence is highlighted. This is guided by a characteristic analysis for a special case. The finite-time breakup is similar in spirit to, although different in detail from, a nonlinear breakup proposed earlier by one of the authors for general unsteady interactive boundary layers and it suggests a wide application of that nonlinear breakup theory and its criterion. Comparisons between computations and theory are found to be supportive.
Reactive pulsed laser deposition of titanium targets in a nitrogen atmosphere has been used to deposit thin titanium oxynitride films on Si substrates. The gold coloured layers exhibited a smooth, featureless surface and good chemical resistance in HF-HNO3 mixtures. The films had a high oxygen content which was responsible for relatively high electrical resistivity, measured to be 200–600 μΩ cm. This new method can easily be applied to the growth of other important nitrides such as ZrN, WN, HfN or the deposition of multilayer structures such as TiN/Ti on a variety of substrates.
Thin films of ZnO have been grown on silicon and glass substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method. The effects of the oxygen partial pressure, substrate temperature and laser wavelength on the structural and optical properties of the films have been studied. The KrF excimer laser (at 248 nm) was found to produce better quality thin films than the frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Layers produced at substrate temperatures as low as 300°C were c-axis oriented with a FWHM value for the 002 XRD reflection less than 0.2° and exhibited optical transmission higher than 80% in the visible region.
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