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As a result of the increase in herd size and the intensification of production, the complexity of reproductive management has been growing in dairy herds. The aim of our study was to examine the associations of management practices and reproductive performance in Holstein cows on large commercial dairy farms. Management practices applied to cows were surveyed between 22 May and 6 November 2015 in 34 large Holstein-Friesian dairy herds in Hungary. Individual data of 23 784 cows that calved between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2014 in the surveyed herds were gathered. Associations between the management practices and the reproductive parameters were analyzed by mixed effects models. Regarding heat abatement we found that ventilation with sprinklers was associated with the shortest breeding interval (P<0.01), the shortest calving to conception interval (P<0.01), and the highest odds of being pregnant by 200 days in milk (P<0.01). Solely ventilation showed similar (P>0.05) results to lack of heat stress protection. It was also revealed, that lack of a well-established voluntary waiting period (VWP) or a VWP shorter than 50 days was associated with less days to first service (P<0.01), shorter breeding interval (P<0.01) and calving to conception interval (P<0.05), as well as higher odds of carrying a calf by 200 days in milk (P<0.01) compared with those using a VWP of at least 50 days. Those farms that applied transrectal ultrasonography were more likely to use ventilation with sprinklers (P<0.05), hormonal synchronization (P<0.01) and to perform early pregnancy diagnosis followed by pregnancy recheck (P<0.05). The application of transrectal ultrasonography with one of the aforementioned practices was associated with reduced days to first service (P<0.05), shorter breeding interval (P<0.05) and higher odds of pregnancy at 200 days in milk (P<0.05). Our study highlights the management practices most closely related to improved reproductive performance, which are, therefore, suggested to be applied on dairy farms, considering the local circumstances of the individual farms.
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful explosive events in the Universe. The prompt gamma emission is followed by an X-ray afterglow that is also detected for over nine hundred GRBs by the Swift BAT and XRT detectors. The X-ray afterglow spectrum bears essential information about the burst, and the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Since the radiation travels through the line of sight intergalactic medium and the ISM in the Milky Way, the observed emission is influenced by extragalactic and galactic components. The column density of the Galactic foreground ranges several orders of magnitudes, due to both the large scale distribution of ISM and its small scale structures. We examined the effect of local HI column density on the penetrating X-ray emission, as the first step towards a precise modeling of the measured X-ray spectra. We fitted the X-ray spectra using the Xspec software, and checked how the shape of the initially power low spectrum changes with varying input Galactic HI column density. The total absorbing HI column is a sum of the intrinsic and Galactic component. We also investigated the model results for the intrinsic component varying the Galactic foreground. We found that such variations may alter the intrinsic hydrogen column density up to twenty-five percent. We will briefly discuss its consequences.
Investigating the distant extragalactic Universe requires a subtraction of the Galactic foreground. One of the major difficulties deriving the fine structure of the galactic foreground is the embedded foreground and background point sources appearing in the given fields. It is especially so in the infrared. We report our study subtracting point sources from Herschel images with Kriging, an interpolation method where the interpolated values are modelled by a Gaussian process governed by prior covariances. Using the Kriging method on Herschel multi-wavelength observations the structure of the Galactic foreground can be studied with much higher resolution than previously, leading to a better foreground subtraction at the end.
We estimate the column density of the Galactic foreground interstellar medium (GFISM) in the direction of extragalactic sources. All-sky AKARI FIS infrared sky survey data might be used to trace the GFISM with a resolution of 2 arcminutes. The AKARI based GFISM hydrogen column density estimates are compared with similar quantities based on HI 21cm measurements of various resolution and of Planck results. High spatial resolution observations of the GFISM may be important recalculating the physical parameters of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using the updated foreground parameters.
The bright radio nucleus 3C84 of the peculiar galaxy NGC1275 was among the first sources studied by VLBI techniques sixteen years ago (Clark et al., 1968). Early observations at short centimeter wavelengths using arrays of up to four telescopes (Schilizzi et al., 1975, and references therein) demonstrated the presence of structure significantly more complex than that seen in other strong compact objects, but were insufficient to determine the brightness distribution with the relatively primitive methods then in use. By the time of the most recent international VLBI symposium (Aug. 1978, in Heidelberg, FRG), Pauliny-Toth et al. (1976) had succeeded in modelling the structure seen by a 4-station transatlantic array, revealing three distinct bright emission regions aligned in position angle −9°, and connected by non-colinear, more diffuse features. Further observations and a reanalysis of earlier data by Preuss et al. (1979) confirmed previous inferences that the three major condensations remained stationary but varied in brightness.
3C454.3 has a core-jet structure on the milliarcsec scale. Following a flux density outburst, the core showed a “superluminal brightening”. Comparison with older observations suggests superluminal motion in the jet. 2134+004, in contrast, is a double source, with no significant (v/c < 1) relative motion of the components.
VLBI observations at 18 and 6 cm with European baselines of lengths up to 15 and 23 million wavelengths respectively have been used to search for structure in the quasar 4C39.25 on scales of 10 to 100 milliarcsec. No significant structure on these scales brighter than 5 percent of the peak brightness has been detected. The core itself, however appears to be extended on a scale of 2 to 4 milliarcsec and variable in flux density.
This paper investigates the effectiveness of using a UAV with dual commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras, one un-modified and one modified to sense near infra-red (NIR) wavelengths to identify the onset of disease within a trial crop of potatoes. The trial was composed of 2 plots of 16 drills containing 12 tubers exposed to the blackleg disease-causing bacterial pathogen (Pectobacterium atrosepticum) in order to demonstrate best practise tuber storage and haulm destruction methods. Eleven sets of aerial data were gathered between 27/5/2016~29/7/2016 and compared with ground truth data collected on 14/7/2016. Visual analysis of the data could only detect the onset of disease and not the specific infection and resulted in a user accuracy (UA) of 83% and producer accuracy (PA) of 78%, with a total accuracy (TA) of 91% and Kappa coefficient (K) of 0.75. The building blocks of an automated classification routine have been constructed using pixel and object based image analysis (OBIA) methods, which have shown promising first results (UA 65%, PA 73%, TA 87%, K 0.61) but requires further refinement to achieve an equivalent level of accuracy as that of the visual analysis.
Numerous investigations have demonstrated that child–parent psychotherapy (CPP) promotes secure attachment between mothers and offspring. However, the role of postintervention attachment security as it relates to long-term child outcomes has never been evaluated. The present study therefore examined postintervention attachment status as a mediator of the association between CPP for depressed mothers and their offspring and subsequent peer relations among offspring. Depressed mothers and their toddlers were randomized to receive CPP (n = 45) or to a control group (n = 55). A prior investigation with this sample indicated that offspring who received CPP attained significantly higher rates of secure attachment postintervention, whereas insecure attachment continued to predominate for offspring in the control group. The present study examined follow-up data of teachers’ reports on participants’ competence with classroom peers when they were approximately 9 years old. Findings indicated that children who received CPP were more likely to evidence secure attachments at postintervention, which in turn was associated with more positive peer relationships at age 9.
Using a developmental cascades framework, the current study investigated whether treating maternal depression via interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) may lead to more widespread positive adaptation for offspring and mothers including benefits to toddler attachment and temperament, and maternal parenting self-efficacy. The participants (N = 125 mother–child dyads; mean mother age at baseline = 25.43 years; 54.4% of mothers were African American; mean offspring age at baseline = 13.23 months) were from a randomized controlled trial of IPT for a sample of racially and ethnically diverse, socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers of infants. Mothers were randomized to IPT (n = 97) or an enhanced community standard control group (n = 28). The results of complier average causal effect modeling showed that engagement with IPT led to significant decreases in maternal depressive symptoms at posttreatment. Moreover, reductions in maternal depression posttreatment were associated with less toddler disorganized attachment characteristics, more adaptive maternal perceptions of toddler temperament, and improved maternal parenting efficacy 8 months following the completion of treatment. Our findings contribute to the emerging literature documenting the potential benefits to children of successfully treating maternal depression. Alleviating maternal depression appears to initiate a cascade of positive adaptation among both mothers and offspring, which may alter the well-documented risk trajectory for offspring of depressed mothers.
Counts of radio sources at 5 GHz (6 cm wavelength) have been derived from a number of surveys including a new strong source survey. The source counts do not appear to differ markedly from an integral number-flux relation having a slope of − 1.5 between 5 and 5 × 103 sources per steradian, and show a sharp drop at source densities smaller than 5 sr-1. On the basis of the form of the number counts and the observed anisotropies in the distribution of sources and of their spectra, the cosmological significance of the source counts is questioned. In particular, the evidence for strong cosmic evolution appears weaker than is generally thought unless the cosmological origin of the quasar redshifts is assumed. Measurements of the radio spectra of the sources suggest a dependence of the spectral curvature on flux density.
Prelimary results of an extended program of coordinated X-ray and optical observations of TT Ari are presented. The object was observed on August 21/22 1985 both in X-rays (EXOSAT) and optical range, about 100 days after the return to the active state. The first detailed simultaneous study of TT Ari in active state indicates the presence of strongly absorbing structure in the system.
The extremely powerful compact radio nucleus of NGC1275 is perhaps the most complex structure seen at milliarcsecond scales. Early attempts to determine its structure (Schilizzi et al. 1975) were unsuccessful, although it was evident that the structure consisted of several bright regions whose relative positions remained fixed while their intensities varied. Later observations and analysis (Pauliny-Toth et al. 1976; Preuss et al. 1979) confirmed this inference and revealed a slow expansion in a direction transverse to the primary axis of alignment.
The results of a survey of selected regions of sky made at a frequency of 5 GHz, and of measurements of the spectral index distributions for sources selected from low frequency surveys are presented. The source counts and spectral distribution at 5 GHz are in excellent agreement with those expected from surveys made at lower frequencies. There is no significant dependence of the spectral distribution on flux density in any of the surveys we have investigated, implying either a low redshift for the sources, or a systematic change in their properties with redshift.
A number of surveys have been carried out at a frequency of 5 GHz at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and at the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), with the aim of determining the number-flux density relation for the sources detected and also of obtaining their radio spectra and optical identifications. The surveys fall into two categories: first, the strong source (S) surveys, which are intended in due course to cover the whole northern sky and to be complete above a flux density of about 0.6 Jy; second, surveys of limited areas of sky down to lower levels of the flux density.
We report here preliminary results of observations of the quasar 3C147 which were made at 6 cm with a resolution of about 1 milliarcsecond using a VLB interferometer system with four antennas in the USA and one in Europe. Our observations are shown in Figure 1 along with previously published maps on larger size scales. VLA observations made at 2 cm wavelength (Fig. 1a) show an extended feature lying about 0.5 arc-seconds (3.5 kpc) to the northeast of a bright core (Readhead et al. 1980), while VLBI observations made at 18, 50, and 91 cm (Readhead and Wilkinson 1980, Wilkinson et al. 1977, and Simon et al. 1980) show a jet-like feature extending about 0.2 arcsec (1 kpc) in the opposite direction (Fig. 1b). The 18 cm VLB observations also indicated the presence of a smaller elongated feature extending only 3 milliarcseconds (20 pc) again toward the northeast (Fig. 1c). We have observed 3C147 in March 1978 and again in April 1981 with a resolution of 0.7 and 1.5 milliarcsec respectively. The 1981 data (Fig. 1d) clearly show the double structure of the core as well as a lower surface brightness feature which can also be seen in the 18 cm map. Our 1978 data (Fig. 1e) has better resolution and shows considerable structure in the milliarcsec component, but due to the absence of phase information in these data, the details are not reliable and the orientation is uncertain by 180°. The orientation is, however, specified by reference to the 1981 data.
We studied the unbiased optical brightness distribution which was calculated from the survival analysis of host galaxies (HGs) data and its relationship with the Swift GRB data of the host galaxies observed by the Keck telescope. Based on the sample obtained from merging the Swift GRB table and the Keck optical data we also studied the dependence of this distribution on the GRB's data. Finally, we compared the HGs distribution with standard galaxies distribution of the DEEP2 redshift survey and checked the result with the VIPERS catalogue too.
The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) N1 field is one of the extragalactic windows where the lack of the Galactic ISM allows us to analyze the unbiased FIR properties of extragalactic objects. The field was investigated recently based on Herschel observations by the HerMES key project. We present a survey of the field covering a larger area than HerMES (12.54 deg2 vs 3.47 deg2). We provide accurate 250, 350, and 500 micrometer flux densities for about 8000 point sources using the latest Herschel analysis and calibration procedures. Based on SDSS spectroscopic and SWIRE photometric data our sample has approximately 4000 and 4500 galaxies with 0.2 < z < 0.5 and z > 0.5 redshifts, respectively. The new flux densities are crucial limiting the star-forming activity of galaxies outside the Local Universe, as it is demonstrated in the star-forming galaxy 2MASS J16072472+5412119.
We studied the space distribution of the starburst galaxies from Millennium XXL database at z = 0.82. We examined the starburst distribution in the classical Millennium I (De Lucia et al. (2006)) using a semi-analytical model for the genesis of the galaxies. We simulated a starburst galaxies sample with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The connection between the large scale structures homogenous and starburst groups distribution (Kofman and Shandarin 1998), Suhhonenko et al. (2011), Liivamägi et al. (2012), Park et al. (2012), Horvath et al. (2014), Horvath et al. (2015)) on a defined scale were checked too.
The point sources in the Bright Source Catalogue (BSC) of the AKARI Far–Infrared Surveyor (FIS) were classified based on their far–IR and mid–IR fluxes and colours using Quadratic Discriminant Analysis method (QDA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The reliability of our results show that we can successfully separate galactic and extragalactic AKARI point sources in the multidimensional space of fluxes and colours. However, differentiating among the extragalactic sub–types needs further information.