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GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
This paper reports the first large-sample investigation of the maltreatment-related correlates of low-income adolescents’ narratives about their childhood experiences with primary caregivers, as assessed with a modified version of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and based on official reports of abuse and neglect (maltreated n = 214, nonmaltreated n = 140; M age = 16.7 years). Drawing on factor-analytic and taxometric evidence indicating that AAI narratives vary along two state of mind (i.e., dismissing and preoccupied) and two inferred childhood experience (i.e., maternal and paternal) dimensions, here we demonstrate that the experience of maltreatment, particularly when chronic, is associated with increased risk for dismissing and preoccupied states of mind and more negative inferred childhood experiences. Although such maltreatment-related associations were generally not specific to any of the four AAI dimensions, the experience of physical and/or sexual abuse was uniquely associated with preoccupied states of mind and negative inferred paternal experiences even after controlling for the other AAI dimensions. More extensive paternal perpetration of maltreatment also was uniquely related to more negative inferred paternal experiences.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
We present a 1.4 square degree survey of the Praesepe open cluster complete to I = 21.3 and Z = 20.2. This corresponds to masses down to 0.06M⊙ and 0.075M⊙ for an assumed cluster age of 1.0 or 0.5 Gyrs respectively. Over fifty new Praesepe candidate members have been discovered with masses less than 0.25M⊙. We discuss plans to establish proper motions of identified Praesepe candidates, and to measure NIR photometry of our candidates.
Visual meteors, due to impinging meteoroids of radius about 1 cm, appear at a rate of a few per hour during non-shower periods. Smaller meteoroids (100 μm – 1 cm) give rise to less bright trails, but are much more abundant. These are usually detected by radars of about 10 m wavelength which, over the past 40 years, have produced a plethora of information concerning mass and height distributions, orbits, etc.
Using such ‘conventional radars’, the peak of the measured height distribution is found at about 95 km, with few meteors detected above 105 km. However, the flux detected is only a few percent of the total flux (a) measured using a large (10 m) optical collector, and (b) expected from a comparison with measurements by satellite impacts and zodiacal light observations (radii < 100 μm). One possibility is that the radars detect few low-velocity (V < ~25 km s-1) meteors since these produce little ionization and thus limit their detectability: the ionizing efficiency of meteors varies as ~ V7/2. In direct opposition, our alternative hypothesis is that the undetected flux is held in a faint high-velocity component which ablates at high altitude. These are not detected by conventional radars because meteor trails have ‘initial widths’ of about 3 m at 105 km; for a radar wavelength of 10 m, components scattered from different regions of the trail therefore destructively interfere, and the probability of detecting any meteor above 105 km is small.
In order to test our hypothesis we have measured the height distribution with a 150 m radar, and we are commencing ancillary observations at 50 m; compared to these wavelengths the initial width is small to at least 140 km. The results show a peak at 105 km with most meteors being above this, significant numbers occurring right up to 140 km. This suggests that the true flux is at least 10 or 20 times that previously deduced, having implications for the number of cornets in the recent past and the balance of material between the smaller bodies in the solar System.
A description is given of a radar facility operating in New Zealand which measures the atmospheric trajectories and hence heliocentric orbits of earth-impacting meteoroids having radiants with declinations +5° < δ < −30° down to a limiting radar meteor magnitude of +13 (corresponding to particle sizes of ~100 μm, masses ~10−6 g). The data handling capacity of the facility permits recording, orbit reduction and efficient presentation of orbital data using graphical packages to be carried out on a routine basis. The daily yield is ~1500 individual orbits with >3×105 secured to date; this is greater than the number determined in all previous meteoroid orbit surveys combined and forms a major southern hemisphere database for dynamical studies of the solar system meteoroid population.
Since 1990 we have operated a program in which all plates and films exposed at the 1.2 m U.K. Schmidt Telescope (UKST) are searched for suspicious trails that may represent fast-moving (Earth-approaching) objects. When a possible near-Earth asteroid is discovered, we obtain follow-up astrometric positions using photography on either the UKST (if the object is faint) or the 0.5 m Uppsala Southern Schmidt at the same site. Further astrometric positions, once a reasonable ephemeris is available, are obtained with a large-format CCD on the 40 inch telescope of the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO).
In the near term we plan to extend our use of the UKST making use of time near bright-of-moon when the telescope is currently underused. We will conduct photographic searching by taking dedicated films in pairs of 5-10 minutes exposure, with 30-60 minutes gaps between. These will then be inspected using electronically blinked video cameras to scan the films and look for objects that have moved between the exposures. We believe that we can better than triple our current discovery rate (which is about 8-10 near-Earth asteroids per year) in this way.
In the longer term clearly the installation of a mosaic of CCDs covering some reasonable fraction of the UKST focal surface is a desideratum, and this is under consideration.
We describe our routine identification of images of asteroids and comets on plates and films in the U.K. Schmidt Telescope archive. The asteroids of most interest to us are those which approach the Earth, and whenever such an object is found (by anyone) we perform backintegrations in order to determine whether the object may have been recorded on any UKST plate taken since 1973. In many cases the object is found (‘precovered’) and measured, allowing an accurate orbit to be determined soon after its discovery; other studies such as long-term dynamical investigations, or predictions of future close approaches to the Earth, are then possible. Similar programs using other wide-field plate archives are to be encouraged, since valuable scientific results may be derived.
Depression is a disabling disorder that significantly impacts on the interpersonal functioning of individuals. However, little is known about the neural substrates of such difficulties. In the last few years neuroeconomics, which combines imaging with multiplayer behavioural economic paradigms, has been used to study the neural substrates of normal and abnormal interpersonal interactions.
This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activity in unmedicated depressed participants (n = 25) and matched healthy controls (n = 25). During scanning, participants played a behavioural economic game, the Prisoner's Dilemma. In this game, the participant and a co-player independently choose either to cooperate or not cooperate with each other.
Depressed participants reported higher levels of negative feelings (betrayal, guilt) during the game than did controls. Neural activation was compared between ‘imbalanced’ events [when one of the players cooperated and the other defected (‘CD’ and ‘DC’)] and ‘draw’ events [when both players either cooperated or defected (‘CC’ and ‘DD’)]. Participants preferentially activated the anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region implicated in cognitive control and regulation of emotions. Importantly, compared to controls depressed participants showed reduced activation in the left DLPFC, with the extent of signal reduction correlating with increased self-report feelings of guilt associated with DC outcomes.
Our findings suggest that depression is associated with reduced activation of the DLPFC during social events that involve unreciprocated cooperation. This abnormality may underlie anomalies in cognitive control and top-down regulation of emotions during challenging social exchanges.
Depression is a prevalent disorder that significantly affects the social functioning and interpersonal relationships of individuals. This highlights the need for investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying these social difficulties. Investigation of social exchanges has traditionally been challenging as such interactions are difficult to quantify. Recently, however, neuroeconomic approaches that combine multiplayer behavioural economic paradigms and neuroimaging have provided a framework to operationalize and quantify the study of social interactions and the associated neural substrates.
We investigated brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in unmedicated depressed participants (n = 25) and matched healthy controls (n = 25). During scanning, participants played a behavioural economic paradigm, the Ultimatum Game (UG). In this task, participants accept or reject monetary offers from other players.
In comparison to controls, depressed participants reported decreased levels of happiness in response to ‘fair’ offers. With increasing fairness of offers, controls activated the nucleus accumbens and the dorsal caudate, regions that have been reported to process social information and responses to rewards. By contrast, participants with depression failed to activate these regions with increasing fairness, with the lack of nucleus accumbens activation correlating with increased anhedonia symptoms. Depressed participants also showed a diminished response to increasing unfairness of offers in the medial occipital lobe.
Our findings suggest that depressed individuals differ from healthy controls in the neural substrates involved with processing social information. In depression, the nucleus accumbens and dorsal caudate may underlie abnormalities in processing information linked to the fairness and rewarding aspects of other people's decisions.
The crystal structure of the fibrous mineral arangasite, Al2F(PO4)(SO4)·9H2O from the Alyaskitovoje deposit, Eastern Yakutiya, Russia, was solved using low-temperature single-crystal data from synchrotron radiation and refined against F2 to R = 9.8%. Arangasite crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/a, with unit-cell parameters a = 7.073(1), b = 9.634(2), c = 10.827(2) Å, β = 100.40(1)°, V = 725.7(7) Å3 and Z = 2. The positions of all the independent H atoms were obtained by difference- Fourier techniques and refined in an isotropic approximation. The arangasite crystal structure is built from one-dimensional chains of Al octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra sharing vertices, quasi-isolated SO4 tetrahedra and H2O molecules. All O atoms are involved in the system of H bonding, acting as donors and/or acceptors. Hydrogen bonding serves as the only mechanism providing linkage between the main structural fragments, thus maintaining the framework. Chains of corner-sharing Al octahedra and P tetrahedra in the arangasite structure are topologically identical to the chains built from (Fe, Al) octahedra and P tetrahedra in the crystal structure of destinezite, Fe2(OH)(PO4)(SO4)·6H2O. It has been shown that in spite of very similar chemical formulae, arangasite and sanjuanite, Al2(OH)(PO4)(SO4)·9H2O, are not isotypic.
The solubility of molybdenum in borosilicate glasses is low. The UK National Nuclear Laboratory has developed a new glass formulation containing calcium and zinc for the vitrification of high molybdenum containing waste arising from the Post Operational Clean Out of the Highly Active Storage Tanks at Sellafield that will decrease the number of product containers required, reducing both production and disposal costs. The new formulation increases the quantity of molybdenum that can be vitrified through the formation of a durable CaMoO4 phase once the solubility limit of molybdenum in the glass has been exceeded. Extensive laboratory trials confirmed the potential to increase the Mo loading significantly. Recently full scale testing has been performed on the Vitrification Test Rig using highly active liquor simulants to determine the maximum MoO3 loading that can be achieved. This paper explores the full scale testing and product quality of the glass manufactured during this study.
Psychotic phenomena appear to form a continuum with normal experience and beliefs, and may build on common emotional interpersonal concerns.
We tested predictions that paranoid ideation is exponentially distributed and hierarchically arranged in the general population, and that persecutory ideas build on more common cognitions of mistrust, interpersonal sensitivity and ideas of reference.
Items were chosen from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) questionnaire and the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire in the second British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity (n = 8580), to test a putative hierarchy of paranoid development using confirmatory factor analysis, latent class analysis and factor mixture modelling analysis.
Different types of paranoid ideation ranged in frequency from less than 2% to nearly 30%. Total scores on these items followed an almost perfect exponential distribution (r = 0.99). Our four a priori first-order factors were corroborated (interpersonal sensitivity; mistrust;ideas of reference; ideas of persecution). These mapped onto four classes of individual respondents:a rare, severe, persecutory class with high endorsement of all item factors, including persecutory ideation; a quasi-normal class with infrequent endorsement of interpersonal sensitivity, mistrust and ideas of reference, and no ideas of persecution; and two intermediate classes, characterised respectively by relatively high endorsement of items relating to mistrust and to ideas of reference.
The paranoia continuum has implications for the aetiology, mechanisms and treatment of psychotic disorders, while confirming the lack of a clear distinction from normal experiences and processes.
Type specimens of the molybdoarsenates betpakdalite, natrobetpakdalite and obradovicite and the molybdophosphates mendozavilite, paramendozavilite and melkovite, and similar material from other sources, have been examined in an effort to elucidate the relations among these phases, which we designate as the heteropolymolybdate family of minerals. Using electron microprobe analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction with crystal structure determination where possible, it was found that natrobetpakdalite, mendozavilite and melkovite are isostructural with betpakdalite and that obradovicite has a closely related structure.
The betpakdalite and obradovicite structure types are based on frameworks containing four-member clusters of edge-sharing MoO6 octahedra that link by sharing corners with other clusters, with Fe3+O6 octahedra and with PO4 or AsO4 tetrahedra (T). The structures differ in the linkages through the Fe3+O6 octahedra, which produce different but closely related framework configurations. The structures contain two types of non-framework cation sites, which are designated A and B. In general, there are two or more A sites partially occupied by disordered, generally larger cations that are coordinated to O atoms in the framework and to H2O molecules. The B site is occupied by a smaller cation that is octahedrally coordinated to H2O molecules. The general formula for minerals with either the betpakdalite or the obradovicite structure is: [A2(H2O)nB(H2O)6][Mo8T2Fe3+3O30+7(OH)7–x], where x is the total charge of the cations in the A and B sites (+3 to +7) and n is variable, ideally 17 for arsenates and 15 for phosphates. The ideal total number of A cations is defined as 2 in the general formula, but varies from 1 to 3.8 in analysed samples. Dominant cations at the A site include K, Na and Ca and at the B site Na, Ca, Mg, Cu and Fe. The combinations that have been identified in this study define six new heteropolymolybdate species.
A suffix-based nomenclature scheme is established for minerals of the betpakdalite, mendozavilite and obradovicite groups, with the following root names based on the structure types and the T-site cations: betpakdalite (T = As), mendozavilite (T = P) and obradovicite (T = As). Two suffixes of the form -AB, corresponding to the dominant cations in the two different types of non-framework cation sites complete the species name. The historical name melkovite is retained rather than introducing mendozavilite-CaCa.
Our investigation of the paramendozavilite type specimen revealed no paramendozavilite, but an apparently closely related new mineral; however, another sample of paramendozavilite analysed had K > Na.
Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is currently building a new kind of general-purpose astronomical facility: a fully robotic network of telescopes of 2m, 1m and 0.4m apertures and homogeneous instrumentation. A pan-network approach to scheduling (rather than per individual telescope) offers redundancy in the event of poor weather or technical failure, as well as the ability to observe a target around the clock. Here we describe the network design and instrumentation under development, together with the main science programmes already being lead by LCOGT staff.