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The disease caused by the influenza virus is a global public health problem due to its high rates of morbidity and mortality. Thus, analysis of the information generated by epidemiological surveillance systems has vital importance for health decision making. A retrospective analysis was performed using data generated by the four molecular diagnostic laboratories of the Mexican Social Security Institute between 2010 and 2016. Demographics, influenza positivity, seasonality, treatment choices and vaccination status analyses were performed for the vaccine according to its composition for each season. In all cases, both the different influenza subtypes and different age groups were considered separately. The circulation of A/H1N1pdm09 (48.7%), influenza A/H3N2 (21.1%), influenza B (12.6%), influenza A not subtyped (11%) and influenza A/H1N1 (6.6%) exhibited well-defined annual seasonality between November and March, and there were significant increases in the number of cases every 2 years. An inadequate use of oseltamivir was determined in 38% of cases, and the vaccination status in general varied between 12.1 and 18.5% depending on the season. Our results provide current information about influenza in Mexico and demonstrate the need to update both operational case definitions and medical practice guidelines to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics and antivirals.
The optimized use of dietary nutrients and the accurate knowledge of the growth dynamics of body components is important for efficient pig production. This study aimed at evaluating the growth of carcass components and organs of Swiss Large White pigs from birth to 140 kg BW depending on the CP and amino acid (AA) supply. A total of 66 entire males (EM), 58 castrates (CA) and 66 female (FE) pigs were used. From 20 kg BW onwards, they had either ad libitum access to a control (C) or a diet (LP) with 20% lower CP, lysine, methionine + cystine, threonine and tryptophan content compared to C. The weight of organs, primal cuts and external fat were recorded in eight EM and eight FE; at 10 kg BW, on two EM, CA and FE each, and at 20 kg BW, on eight pigs from each sex. From 40 to 140 kg BW at 20 kg intervals, measurements were recorded on four pigs per sex and dietary treatment. The weight of each component was related to empty body (EB) using allometric regressions. Kidneys were heavier (P<0.05) in C- than LP-pigs and in EM than CA and FE. Above 21 kg EB weight, growth rate of LP-FE overpassed (P<0.05) the one of C-pigs. Consequently, LP-FE had heavier (P<0.05) lean cuts than C-pigs in the finisher period. However, LP-CA and LP-EM displayed lower (P<0.05) weights and growth rates of the lean cuts than C-CA and C-EM. Shoulder and loin weights and growth rates were reduced (P<0.05) in LP-pigs when compared to C-pigs. Growth rates of the ham were greater (P<0.05) in LP-FE than C-FE, whereas in LP-EM and LP-CA they were lower (P<0.05) than their C-counterparts. Total amounts of subcutaneous fat, backfat, ham fat and shoulder fat were lower (P<0.05) in C- than LP-pigs. The total amount of subcutaneous fat, backfat and shoulder fat of C-CA was, regardless of diet, greater (P<0.05) than of C-FE. In the LP group, this difference was even more pronounced. The amount of deposited ham fat was greater (P<0.05) in LP-CA than LP-FE, but not in C-CA v. C-FE. Differences in kidney weights suggested a greater nitrogen clearance required in C-pigs. Overall, dietary restriction and sex did not affect all body parts to the same extent. This study further suggests the possibility to reduce the CP and AA supply in FE without compromising the yield of primal lean cuts or increasing the amount of subcutaneous fat.
The formation of zonal flows from inhomogeneous drift-wave (DW) turbulence is often described using statistical theories derived within the quasilinear approximation. However, this approximation neglects wave–wave collisions. Hence, some important effects such as the Batchelor–Kraichnan inverse-energy cascade are not captured within this approach. Here we derive a wave kinetic equation that includes a DW collision operator in the presence of zonal flows. Our derivation makes use of the Weyl calculus, the quasinormal statistical closure and the geometrical-optics approximation. The obtained model conserves both the total enstrophy and energy of the system. The derived DW collision operator breaks down at the Rayleigh–Kuo threshold. This threshold is missed by homogeneous-turbulence theory but expected from a full-wave quasilinear analysis. In the future, this theory might help better understand the interactions between drift waves and zonal flows, including the validity domain of the quasilinear approximation that is commonly used in the literature.
Mineral composition and relative deposition rates in the pig’s body are used to assess the mineral net requirements for growth and input–output balances. The study aimed to examine the dynamics of changes in mineral composition and deposition rates in the empty body (EB) from birth to 140 kg BW depending on dietary protein supply. In the experiment, 66 entire male, 58 castrated and 66 female Swiss Large White pigs were used to determine body composition at birth, 10, 20 kg and at 20 kg intervals from 40 to 140 kg BW. From 20 kg BW, they had either ad libitum access to a control grower and finisher diet or a grower and finisher diet containing 80% CP, lysine, methione+cystine, threonine and tryptophan of the control diet. Each EB fraction (carcass, organs and empty intestines, blood and bile) was weighed and analyzed for water, ash, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc contents. Allometric relationships between the amount of each mineral in the EB and the EB weight (EBW) were fitted. The R2 of the allometric equations was above 0.92, except for copper and manganese (below 0.33), revealing the EBW as an excellent explanatory variable of the analyzed amounts. The copper and manganese composition in the EB were extremely low and variable which explain the low R2. Except for zinc, all mineral relative deposition rates decreased with increasing EBW. The amount of ash, calcium and phosphorus in the EB was not affected by the diet, but when expressed relative to body protein these minerals were increased when pigs were fed the low protein diet. This suggests an independent protein deposition and bone mineralization when animals are fed diets limiting in protein content. The diet also affected the amount of potassium in the EB which was greater when the low protein diet was fed. The gender only affected the amounts of potassium and sodium in the EB which were greater in entire males. Entire males had also greater amounts of water in the EB, which may explain the observed effect of gender on these two electrolytes. Finally, gender and dietary protein did not affect to a sufficient relevant way the body mineral composition and deposition rates in the EB, suggesting that their distinction may not be necessary to assess, on BW basis, the mineral net requirements for growth and the exported amount of minerals in input–output balances.
The objective was to compare the performance of the updated Charlson comorbidity index (uCCI) and classical CCI (cCCI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All cases of SAB in patients aged ⩾14 years identified at the Microbiology Unit were included prospectively and followed. Comorbidity was evaluated using the cCCI and uCCI. Relevant variables associated with SAB-related mortality, along with cCCI or uCCI scores, were entered into multivariate logistic regression models. Global model fit, model calibration and predictive validity of each model were evaluated and compared. In total, 257 episodes of SAB in 239 patients were included (mean age 74 years; 65% were male). The mean cCCI and uCCI scores were 3.6 (standard deviation, 2.4) and 2.9 (2.3), respectively; 161 (63%) cases had cCCI score ⩾3 and 89 (35%) cases had uCCI score ⩾4. Sixty-five (25%) patients died within 30 days. The cCCI score was not related to mortality in any model, but uCCI score ⩾4 was an independent factor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–3.74). The uCCI is a more up-to-date, refined and parsimonious prognostic mortality score than the cCCI; it may thus serve better than the latter in the identification of patients with SAB with worse prognoses.
Breeding efforts over the last decades altered markedly empty body (EB) composition of pigs. This study aimed to re-evaluate the dynamics of changes in the composition and deposition rate of fat, protein and amino acids (AA) in the EB from birth to 140 kg BW depending on the dietary CP and AA supply in a current pig genotype. In the experiment 66 entire male, 58 castrated and 66 female Swiss Large White pigs were used. From 20 kg BW onwards, they had either ad libitum access to a control (C) diet or a diet (LP) compared to diet C only 80% of CP, lysine, methione+cystine, threonine and tryptophan. The EB composition was determined at birth on eight boars and eight females, at 10 and 20 kg BW on two boars, two castrates and two females, and at 20 kg intervals from 40 to 140 kg BW, on four pigs per gender and dietary treatment. Each EB fraction was weighed and analysed for protein, fat and AA profile. The AA-to-lysine ratio was calculated and the different chemical component contents were fitted to allometric regressions. Overall, C-boars had the greatest EB protein and AA content and deposition rates, and lowest fat content and deposition rates. At the beginning of the grower period, LP-castrates and females displayed the lowest protein and AA and the highest fat deposition rates. However, compared with their counterparts in the C-group, in LP-castrates and females protein and AA deposition rates were greater above 64 and 40 kg EB weight, respectively, whereas fat deposition rates was lower above 80 kg EB weight. Thus, there seems a great potential to optimise protein and AA efficiency especially in the finisher period in castrates and females. Important individual variations were found in the essential AA-to-lysine ratio of the EB. Phenylalanine and threonine-to-lysine ratios decreased with increasing EB weight. Valine- and threonine-to-lysine ratios in C-castrates and C-females were 5% and 4% greater than recently reported by the National Research Council (NRC) whereas cysteine-, methionine- and tyrosine-to-lysine ratios were lower by 34%, 25% and 10%, respectively. The clear differences found between the EB AA-to-lysine ratios in the present study and the NRC might partly be explained by the genotype and the temporal changes in the relative weight of each EB fraction or changes in the AA profile. Nevertheless, these findings on changes in the essential AA profile of tissue protein warrant further studies.
Recent studies suggest that the use of vegetable oils at expense of fish oil in aquaculture feeds might have potential negative effects on fish redox homeostasis and adiposity. Resveratrol (RESV) is a lipid-soluble phytoalexin present in fruits and vegetables with proven in vivo antioxidant function in animals. The present study aims to assess the potential use of RESV in Atlantic salmon feeds. To this end, post-smolt salmons with an initial BW of 148±3 g were fed four experimental diets for 15 weeks. A diet low in fish oil served as a control and was supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 g/kg of RESV, respectively. The effect of the experimental diets on animal performance, tissue fatty acid composition, and the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in antioxidant signalling, lipid peroxidation, and metabolism were studied. Resveratrol significantly reduced feed intake and final BW of the salmon. Feeding RESV did not affect the sum of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids or total lipids in the fillet. While the content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids was not affected, the percentages of some fatty acids in the liver and fillet were changed by RESV. Furthermore, in liver, the relative expression of glutathione peroxidase 4b, nuclear factor-like 2, and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase remained unchanged across treatment groups. In conclusion, the negative impact of dietary RESV on FI and hence reduction of the BW discourages its inclusion in low fish oil diets for Atlantic salmon.
We present observations of massive star-forming regions selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalog. The observations were made with the Very Large Array and the Large Millimeter Telescope to search for Class I methanol masers. We made interferometric observations of 125 massive star-forming regions in the 44 GHz methanol maser transition; 53 of the 125 fields showed emission. The data allow us to demonstrate associations, at arcsecond precision, of the Class I maser emission with outflows, HII regions and shocks traced by 4.5 μm emission. We made single-dish observations toward 38 of the 53 regions with 44 GHz masers detected to search for the methanol transitions at 84.5, 95.1, 96.7, 107.0, and 108.8 GHz. We find detection rates of 74, 55, 100, 3, and 45%, respectively. We used a wide-band receiver which revealed many other spectral lines that are common in star-forming regions.