To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper consisted of a running commentary by Ernest Hildner on the movie as it was shown. The data from the movie has not yet been fully analyzed and will be published elsewhere. Discussion immediately followed the movie. (ed.)
X-ray computed tomography (CT) measurements of live sheep have been used to predict carcass composition very accurately (Macfarlane et al., 2006). The utilisation of spiral CT scans (SCTS) for quantifying muscle volumes and weights, using automatic image analysis procedures has also been shown to be very accurate in sheep (Navajas et al., 2006). Although the limiting size of the CT gantry prevents CT scanning of live beef cattle, beef primal joints are small enough to be scanned. Hence, SCTS could be used to quantify beef carcass composition, and provide valuable information for breeding programmes including composition faster than by anatomical dissection. The objective of this study was to develop a CT image analysis procedure to assess fat, muscle and bone weights of beef carcasses and to evaluate its accuracy.
Background: Diaphragm pacing (DP) is an experimental ALS treatment, available through a compassionate use program. Eligibility requires forced vital capacity (FVC) between 45-50% predicted and phrenic nerve conduction study (NCS) evidence showing the diaphragm can be electrically stimulated. Diaphragm ultrasound (DU) also evaluates diaphragm function by demonstrating thickening with inspiration. Methods: A 63 year old man with advanced ALS requested DP as his respiratory functions worsened. He was wheelchair bound and had severe dysarthria and dysphagia. He had exertional dyspnea and used CPAP at night for obstructive apnea. Results: FVC was 47% predicted. Initial phrenic NCS showed a normal response on the right but no response on the left, making him ineligible for DP. Diaphragm function was further assessed with DU. This showed normal thickening with inspiration bilaterally. The DU result prompted repeating the right phrenic NCS which then showed a normal response. He successfully completed surgical implantation of diaphragm leads for DP. At surgery both diaphragms showed good responses to electrical stimulation. Conclusions: Phrenic NCS can be technically challenging and yield a false positive (absent) result. In this patient, DU indicated good diaphragm function, which prompted repeating phrenic NCS. The normal phrenic NCS allowed the patient to pursue DP.
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a debilitating disorder (1). Based on neuromotor impairments it is divided to spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic types (2). Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEMs), monogenic and chromosomal disorders mimic CP (3). We aimed to identify causal genetic variants in patients with atypical dyskinetic CP in whom known IEMs were ruled out. Timely diagnosis is essential for proper management, especially in conditions that mimic CP and are treatable. Methods: We enrolled 23 patients with unexplained atypical dyskinetic CP, for whole exome sequencing. Variants were filtered against public and in-house databases to identify variants predicted as damaging (in silico tools and ACMG criteria). We applied a virtual gene panel of known and suspected CP and movement disorder genes and investigated each sample. Results: The participants presented with symptoms including: spasticity, dystonia, choera-athetosis, ataxia and cognitive delays. We identified 23 diagnoses: 13 dominant,6 recessive and 4 X-linked. 12 patients had movement disorders. In 4, the diagnoses enabled targeted treatment (neurotransmitter supplements in Unverricht Lundborg diseases (CSTB) and PAK3 deficiency, deep brain stimulation in GNAO1 deficiency, medical diet in Glutaric Aciduria (GCDH). Conclusions: Whole Exome Sequencing contributes to establishing diagnosis in patients with atypical dyskinetic CP resulting in precision medicine and improved health outcomes.
The coronagraph has obtained observations, both by astronaut and ground command, spaced periodically throughout the mission on a time center of approximately six to eight hours. Programs of more frequent operation – to examine short-term temporal variations and transient activity in the corona – have also been run at various times during the mission. The initial coronagraph observations of structures near limb passage experimentally verify that there are several time scales on which visual changes in these structures occur: (a) approximately one-half rotation, presumably accompanying major reorientations of coronal magnetic fields governing large scale coronal structures, (b) hours to days wherein changes to smaller coronal features are due either to structural changes of particular coronal features or to perspective effects and (c) less than hours – during coronal transients – which caused major reorientation of coronal structures by their passage through the coronal medium. Observations of the latter phenomena have provided some of the more spectacular results from the coronagraph (see Figure 1). The particular case illustrated was one stage of a complex series of events associated with activity in region 137, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration numbering, near east limb passage on 10 June 1973. The limb exhibited a major system of active prominences extended from the equator to north 25° and produced surges and sprays through the early hours of the day. From approximately 0700 to 0900 UT several Hα and small X-ray flares occurred and 0815 an eruptive prominence was observed by ground-based telescopes to ascend to 1.4 R⊙. This latter event is presumably the source of the transient observed by the coronagraph between 0929 and 1001 by ground command. During this period the material front moved with the apparent projected velocity of 450 km s−1 from 3.6 to 4.8 R⊙, while the arch-like structure expanded to a diameter greater than 2 R⊙. Figure 1 shows the event at 0943 GMT; it is one photograph of the 144 obtained. Within the structure are numerous bright areas and extended structures apparently mapping the distended magnetic field configuration. The general appearance of this transient is indicative of a large magnetic loop, or bottle, expanded outward from the Sun, its leading edge compressed by interaction with the ambient corona. Although there apparently was not a metric radio burst associated with this event, other transients observed later in the mission have associated metric wavelength activity.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
Using a sequential in vitro/in vivo approach, we tested the ability of botanical extracts to influence biomarkers associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Pomegranate fruit and grape seed extracts were found to exhibit anti-resorptive activity by inhibiting receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in MG-63 cells and to reduce IL-1β-stimulated calvarial 45Ca loss. A combination of pomegranate fruit and grape seed extracts were shown to be effective at inhibiting bone loss in ovariectomised rats as demonstrated by standard histomorphometry, biomechanical and bone mineral density measurements. Quercetin and licorice extract exhibited bone formation activity as measured by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) promoter activation, increased expression of BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels, and promotion of bone growth in cultured mouse calvariae. A combination of quercetin and licorice extract demonstrated a potential for increasing bone mineral density in an intact female rat model as compared with controls. The results from this sequential in vitro/in vivo research model yielded botanical extract formulas that demonstrate significant potential benefits for bone health.
This study explored how older Punjabi-speaking South-Asian immigrants (four focus groups; 33 participants) in Surrey, British Columbia, perceive oral health and related problems. Content analysis revealed two umbrella themes: (a) interpretations of mouth conditions and (b) challenges to oral health. The umbrella themes had four sub-themes: damage caused by heat (wai), disturbances caused by caries, coping with dentures, and quality of life. Three challenges were considered: home remedies, Western dentistry, and difficulties accessing dentists. Participants explained oral diseases in terms of a systemic infection (resha), and preferred to decrease imbalances of wai in the mouth with home remedies from India. We conclude that older Punjabi-speaking immigrants interpret oral health and disease in the context of both Western and Ayurvedic traditions, and that they manage dental problems with a mix of traditional remedies supplemented, if possible, by elective oral health care in India, and by emergency dental care in Canada.
The number of wineries in nontraditional cool climate regions of the United States has increased dramatically in the last decade. We examine factors influencing distribution channel choices by these wineries, including winery characteristics, marketing strategies, and the extent of vertical and horizontal integration. Using a survey of winery operators in Michigan, Missouri, and New York, we developed fractional logit models to test hypotheses regarding their distribution channel choices. We find that the share of wine sold through intermediated channels increases with winery size, years of operation, increased vertical and horizontal integration, and greater promotional intensity and levels of self-reported marketing challenges.