High incidence of mycoses were found in the guts and malpighian tubes of Phlebokomus papatasi from the Jordan Valley and P. tobbi from Zakinthos, Greece. Infections with several different bacteria were also found in the guts of female P. tobbi. Fungi cultured from guts of laboratory reared P. papatasi that had similar mycoses were identified as Aspergillus scierotiorum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fungi-infected laboratory reared P. papatasi were refractory to artificial infections with a Leishmania major strain specific to them. The crop contents of P. papatasi, where sugar meals are stored, demonstrated antibacterial activity against the following bacterial species in culture: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus group A and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is postulated that the bacteria-free gut normal to sandflies is effected by the bacterial inhibitor present in the crop.