Recent confocal microscopy studies have greatly expanded our knowledge of muscle systems in cercariae and adult digeneans, but the gross anatomy and development of metacercarial musculature remain relatively little known. To further our understanding of metacercarial development, this study used phalloidin staining and confocal microscopy to examine changes in muscle architecture over the course of development from cercariae to infective metacercariae in Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984. The paper describes muscle development in the body wall, anterior organ (oral sucker), acetabulum, pharynx and midgut and in the musculo-glandular organs that first appear in metacercariae (lappets and holdfast). The muscle architecture of the cercarial tail is also described. The results of the study support previously reported observations that diplostomid musculature undergoes substantial transformation during metacercarial development. The most profound changes, involving extensive remodelling and replacement of cercarial muscles, were seen in the body-wall musculature and in the anterior organ as it developed into the oral sucker. Muscle systems of other cercarial organs showed more gradual changes. The adaptive importance of developmental changes in musculature is discussed.