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While earlier research on second language learning may have distinguished language acquisition from language use (Krashen, 1982), more recent conceptualizations of second language learning have come to refer to the field of second language acquisition (SLA) as second language studies (e.g., Gass, Lee, & Roots, 2007) and second language development (e.g., Larsen-Freeman, 2018). In light of this conceptual shift, the focus has also expanded beyond the individual language learner, with the research lens turning towards the language teacher and the wider social ecology in which the learner is embedded. In tandem with the broadening of the field, there has been a marked increase in the volume of qualitative research published since Lazaraton’s (1995) earlier lament over the paucity of qualitative studies published in applied linguistics journals. While the distribution of qualitative research across international journals remains uneven (Benson et al., 2009), with some journals such as Applied Linguistics, The Modern Language Journal, System, and TESOL Quarterly being more open to the publication of qualitative research than others, the field of SLA has also witnessed a proliferation of handbook chapters on qualitative research (e.g., Benson, 2012; De Costa, Valmori, & Choi, 2017; Harklau, 2011; Lew, Yang, & Harklau, 2018) and books (e.g., Holliday, 2007; Mirhosseini, 2017b; Richards, 2003) that focus exclusively on qualitative research.
The current study examined the pattern of neurocognitive impairments in a community-recruited sample of clinical high-risk (CHR) participants and established relationships with psychosocial functioning.
CHR-participants (n = 108), participants who did not fulfil CHR-criteria (CHR-negatives) (n = 42) as well as a group of healthy controls (HCs) (n = 55) were recruited. CHR-status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Adult Version (SPI-A). The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Battery (BACS) as well as tests for emotion recognition, working memory and attention were administered. In addition, role and social functioning as well as premorbid adjustment were assessed.
CHR-participants were significantly impaired on the Symbol-Coding and Token-Motor task and showed a reduction in total BACS-scores. Moreover, CHR-participants were characterised by prolonged response times (RTs) in emotion recognition as well as by reductions in both social and role functioning, GAF and premorbid adjustments compared with HCs. Neurocognitive impairments in emotion recognition accuracy, emotion recognition RT, processing speed and motor speed were associated with several aspects of functioning explaining between 4% and 12% of the variance.
The current data obtained from a community sample of CHR-participants highlight the importance of dysfunctions in motor and processing speed and emotion recognition RT. Moreover, these deficits were found to be related to global, social and role functioning, suggesting that neurocognitive impairments are an important aspect of sub-threshold psychotic experiences and a possible target for therapeutic interventions.
Peter I. Hajnal, the Government Publications Specialist at the University of Toronto and the author of many reference books and articles relating to the publications of international organizations, has compiled a list of 110 publications he believes to be currently the best, and most useful sources of information produced by international organizations in general and the United Nations and its specialized agencies in particular, as well as books written about such organizations and their publications.
This list was originally prepared for the Conference on the United Nations: Law and Legal Research sponsored by and conducted at the Institute for Comparative and International Legal Research, Center for International Legal Studies, St. Mary's University School of Law, San Antonio, Texas. At this important conference, which took place on February 20–22, 1991, a number of specialists discussed different aspects of the United Nations and described the publications, as well as other information activities, of the United Nations and its specialized agencies. Mr. Peter I. Hajnal spoke about United Nations publications. In conjunction with his lecture he distributed to the participants of the conference the excellent list reproduced below. The list is published with the kind permission of its author and Professor Robert L. Summers, Jr., the Director of Training at the Institute for Comparative and International Legal Research, St. Mary's University School of Law.
The lower Mississippian Ballagan Formation of northern Britain is one of only two successions worldwide to yield the earliest known tetrapods with terrestrial capability following the end-Devonian mass extinction event. Studies of the sedimentary environments and habitats in which these beasts lived have been an integral part of a major research project into how, why and under what circumstances this profound step in the evolution of life on Earth occurred. Here, a new palaeogeographic map is constructed from outcrop data integrated with new and archived borehole material. The map shows the extent of a very low-relief coastal wetland developed along the tropical southern continental margin of Laurussia. Coastal floodplains in the Midland Valley and Tweed basins were separated from the marginal marine seaway of the Northumberland–Solway Basin to the south by an archipelago of more elevated areas. A complex mosaic of sedimentary environments was juxtaposed, and included fresh and brackish to saline and hypersaline lakes, a diverse suite of floodplain palaeosols and a persistent fluvial system in the east of the region. The strongly seasonal climate led to the formation of evaporite deposits alternating with flooding events, both meteoric and marine. Storm surges drove marine floods from the SW into both the western Midland Valley and Northumberland–Solway Basin; marine water also flooded into the Tweed Basin and Tayside in the east. The Ballagan Formation is a rare example in the geological record of a tropical, seasonal coastal wetland that contains abundant, small-scale evaporite deposits. The diverse sedimentary environments and palaeosol types indicate a network of different terrestrial and aquatic habitats in which the tetrapods lived.
The appropriate medical treatment test (ATT), included in the Mental Health Act (MHA) (1983, as amended 2007), aims to ensure that detention only occurs when treatment with the purpose of alleviating a mental disorder is available.
As part of the Assessing the Impact of the Mental Health Act (AMEND) project, this qualitative study aimed to assess professionals' understanding of the ATT, and its impact on clinical practice.
Forty-one professionals from a variety of mental health subspecialties were interviewed. Interviews were coded related to project aims, and themes were generated in an inductive process.
We found that clinicians are often wholly relied upon for the ATT. Considered treatment varied depending on the patient's age rather than diagnosis. The ATT has had little impact on clinical practice.
Our findings suggest the need to review training and support for professionals involved in MHA assessments, with better-defined roles. This may enable professionals to implement the ATT as its designers intended.
The growing interest in identity and language education over the past two decades, coupled with increased interest in digital technology and transnationalism, has resulted in a rich body of work that has informed language learning, teaching, and research. To keep abreast of these developments in identity research, the authors propose a series of research tasks arising from this changing landscape. To frame the discussion, they first examine how theories of identity have developed, and present a theoretical toolkit that might help scholars negotiate the fast evolving research area. In the second section, they present three broad and interrelated research questions relevant to identity in language learning and teaching, and describe nine research tasks that arise from the questions outlined. In the final section, they provide readers with a methodology toolkit to help carry out the research tasks discussed in the second section. By framing the nine proposed research tasks in relation to current theoretical and methodological developments, they provide a contemporary guide to research on identity in language learning and teaching. In doing so, the authors hope to contribute to a trajectory of vibrant and productive research in language education and applied linguistics.
The origins of Venice have been of great interest to Venetians and to scholars more generally for centuries. Long shrouded in myth and legend due to the dearth of pre-ninth-century AD evidence, recent archaeological research is now illuminating how the famous city built on water began. Using high-resolution AMS dating of peach stones (pits) from below the Basilica of San Marco, the authors provide the first evidence for human activity at what is now the location of Piazza San Marco. Dating to between AD 650 and 770, this activity included canal in-filling and ground consolidation intended to create an area that was to become the city's civic centre in the early ninth century.
Reduced soil fertility and damage from pests and diseases have contributed to a decline in productivity of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) smallholdings in Sulawesi, Indonesia over the last decade. In a trial on a marginal, acidic soil in South Sulawesi, young PBC123 cocoa trees were supplied with compost, mineral fertiliser (NPK fertiliser and urea) or dolomite, alone and in combination. After 20 months, the trees supplied with compost were taller, flowered more profusely and had a five-fold higher dry bean yield than other treatments. Treatments had no impact on incidence of cocoa pod borer, Phytophthora pod rot and vascular streak dieback. All of the trees supplied with compost survived, while the control, mineral-fertiliser- and dolomite-treated trees had a mortality rate of 22–45% and symptoms of interveinal necrosis. Leaf concentrations of N, P and K were within the normal range in all treatments. In the control and mineral fertiliser treatments, leaf concentrations of Ca (0.28–0.30%) and Mg (0.11–0.15%) were deficient, but were higher in trees supplied with compost (0.78–1.21% and 0.26–0.29%, respectively). The Mg/K ratio in soil-exchangeable cations and leaves was increased three-fold by the combined compost/dolomite treatment. Supplying mineral fertiliser alone resulted in 3.3 cmol kg−1 exchangeable Al, compared to 2.2 cmol kg−1 in control soils. Since 10 kg tree−1 year−1 compost was supplied, a rate that is not practical on most cocoa smallholder farms, further investigation of cost-effective applications of organic matter in conjunction with appropriate formulations of inorganic fertilisers is recommended.
Urban slums provide suitable conditions for infestation by rats, which harbour and shed a wide diversity of zoonotic pathogens including helminths. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with the probability and intensity of infection of helminths of the digestive tract in an urban slum population of Rattus norvegicus. Among 299 rats, eleven species/groups of helminths were identified, of which Strongyloides sp., Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and, the human pathogen, Angiostrongylus cantonensis were the most frequent (97, 41 and 39%, respectively). Sex interactions highlighted behavioural differences between males and females, as eg males were more likely to be infected with N. brasiliensis where rat signs were present, and males presented more intense infections of Strongyloides sp. Moreover, rats in poor body condition had higher intensities of N. brasiliensis. We describe a high global richness of parasites in R. norvegicus, including five species known to cause disease in humans. Among these, A. cantonensis was found in high prevalence and it was ubiquitous in the study area – knowledge which is of public health importance. A variety of environmental, demographic and body condition variables were associated with helminth species infection of rats, suggesting a comparable variety of risk factors for humans.
This paper highlights major developments over the past two to three decades in the neuropsychology of movement and its disorders. We focus on studies in healthy individuals and patients, which have identified cognitive contributions to movement control and animal work that has delineated the neural circuitry that makes these interactions possible. We cover advances in three major areas: (1) the neuroanatomical aspects of the “motor” system with an emphasis on multiple parallel circuits that include cortical, corticostriate, and corticocerebellar connections; (2) behavioral paradigms that have enabled an appreciation of the cognitive influences on the preparation and execution of movement; and (3) hemispheric differences (exemplified by limb praxis, motor sequencing, and motor learning). Finally, we discuss the clinical implications of this work, and make suggestions for future research in this area. (JINS, 2017, 23, 768–777)
The ice-sheet margin at Russell Glacier, West Greenland, advanced ∼7 m a−1 between 1968 and 1999. As the ice advanced over moraine ridges, small changes in position caused major changes in the routing of proglacial water and sediment. These included changes in the distribution of ice-marginal lakes, in the periodic drainage of ice-dammed lakes, in the routing and sediment content of meltwater draining into the proglacial zone, and in the release of sediment from the moraines by erosion and mass movements. Proglacial hydrology and sediment flux appear to be controlled not simply by glacier mass balance, but by evolving ice-marginal geomorphology, which must be accounted for in palaeoenvironmental interpretation of proglacial sediments.
Sediment production at a terrestrial section of the ice-sheet margin in West Greenland is dominated by debris released through the basal ice layer. The debris flux through the basal ice at the margin is estimated to be 12–45 m3 m−1 a−1. This is three orders of magnitude higher than that previously reported for East Antarctica, an order of magnitude higher than sites reported from in Norway, Iceland and Switzerland, but an order of magnitude lower than values previously reported from tidewater glaciers in Alaska and other high-rate environments such as surging glaciers. At our site, only negligible amounts of debris are released through englacial, supraglacial or subglacial sediment transfer. Glaciofluvial sediment production is highly localized, and long sections of the ice-sheet margin receive no sediment from glaciofluvial sources. These findings differ from those of studies at more temperate glacial settings where glaciofluvial routes are dominant and basal ice contributes only a minor percentage of the debris released at the margin. These data on debris flux through the terrestrial margin of an outlet glacier contribute to our limited knowledge of debris production from the Greenland ice sheet.
We present observations of massive star-forming regions selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalog. The observations were made with the Very Large Array and the Large Millimeter Telescope to search for Class I methanol masers. We made interferometric observations of 125 massive star-forming regions in the 44 GHz methanol maser transition; 53 of the 125 fields showed emission. The data allow us to demonstrate associations, at arcsecond precision, of the Class I maser emission with outflows, HII regions and shocks traced by 4.5 μm emission. We made single-dish observations toward 38 of the 53 regions with 44 GHz masers detected to search for the methanol transitions at 84.5, 95.1, 96.7, 107.0, and 108.8 GHz. We find detection rates of 74, 55, 100, 3, and 45%, respectively. We used a wide-band receiver which revealed many other spectral lines that are common in star-forming regions.
Prospective data on the associations between vitamin D intake and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality are limited and inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between vitamin D intake and CVD risk and all-cause mortality in the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study.
The associations of vitamin D intake with CVD risk markers were examined cross-sectionally at baseline and longitudinally at 5-year, 10-year and >20-year follow-ups. In addition, the predictive value of vitamin D intake for CVD events and all-cause mortality after >20 years of follow-up was examined. Logistic regression and general linear regression were used for data analysis.
Participants in the UK.
Men (n 452) who were free from CVD and type 2 diabetes at recruitment.
Higher vitamin D intake was associated with increased HDL cholesterol (P=0·003) and pulse pressure (P=0·04) and decreased total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol (P=0·008) cross-sectionally at baseline, but the associations were lost during follow-up. Furthermore, higher vitamin D intake was associated with decreased concentration of plasma TAG at baseline (P=0·01) and at the 5-year (P=0·01), but not the 10-year examination. After >20 years of follow-up, vitamin D was not associated with stroke (n 72), myocardial infarctions (n 142), heart failure (n 43) or all-cause mortality (n 281), but was positively associated with increased diastolic blood pressure (P=0·03).
The study supports associations of higher vitamin D intake with lower fasting plasma TAG and higher diastolic blood pressure.
Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.
To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.
The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.
In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β=0.12, P = 2.7 × 10−4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10−7) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10−8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO.
This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.