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Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
While taxonomy segregates anxiety symptoms into diagnoses, patients typically present with multiple diagnoses; this poses major challenges, particularly for youth, where mixed presentation is particularly common. Anxiety comorbidity could reflect multivariate, cross-domain interactions insufficiently emphasized in current taxonomy. We utilize network analytic approaches that model these interactions by characterizing pediatric anxiety as involving distinct, inter-connected, symptom domains. Quantifying this network structure could inform views of pediatric anxiety that shape clinical practice and research.
Participants were 4964 youths (ages 5–17 years) from seven international sites. Participants completed standard symptom inventory assessing severity along distinct domains that follow pediatric anxiety diagnostic categories. We first applied network analytic tools to quantify the anxiety domain network structure. We then examined whether variation in the network structure related to age (3-year longitudinal assessments) and sex, key moderators of pediatric anxiety expression.
The anxiety network featured a highly inter-connected structure; all domains correlated positively but to varying degrees. Anxiety patients and healthy youth differed in severity but demonstrated a comparable network structure. We noted specific sex differences in the network structure; longitudinal data indicated additional structural changes during childhood. Generalized-anxiety and panic symptoms consistently emerged as central domains.
Pediatric anxiety manifests along multiple, inter-connected symptom domains. By quantifying cross-domain associations and related moderation effects, the current study might shape views on the diagnosis, treatment, and study of pediatric anxiety.
This Research Reflection addresses the possibilities for Welfare Quality® to evolve from an assessment method based on data gathered on punctual visits to the farm to an assessment method based on sensor data. This approach could provide continuous and objective data, while being less costly and time consuming. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies enabling the monitorisation of Welfare Quality® measures are reviewed and discussed. For those measures that cannot be assessed by current technologies, some options to be developed are proposed. Picturing future dairy farms, the need for multipurpose and non-invasive PLF technologies is stated, in order to avoid an excessive artificialisation of the production system. Social concerns regarding digitalisation are also discussed.
Muchos animales se encuentran entretejidos en las visiones cósmicas de diferentes culturas del mundo. En este contexto varias especies han sido idealizadas como referentes que sintetizan atributos apreciados por el hombre como poder, valor, nobleza, así como fuerzas de la naturaleza o de lo desconocido. Con frecuencia son animales grandes los que han capturado la atención humana desde sus orígenes, como lo refleja el arte parietal antiguo. Probablemente esto obedece a que se les consideró importantes para la vida cotidiana y también a su supuesta influencia en mitos de mundos paralelos.
En varias culturas alrededor del mundo se ha asignado a los osos un sitio prominente. Se conocen rituales y cultos relacionados con la presencia del oso en distintos grupos humanos en Asia, en pueblos originarios de Norteamérica y culturas de los Andes. Estas manifestaciones ocurren, por lo general, en sociedades que se encuentran asentadas en territorios dentro las principales áreas de distintas especies de osos. Sin embargo, en partes marginales de territorios ocupados por osos, las referencias culturales a ellos son escasas. Por ejemplo, no se había reportado la representación de estos mamíferos en las culturas que se desarrollaron en Mesoamérica.
Trabajos arqueológicos recientes en el sitio de Tancama (Querétaro, México), ocupado por un grupo de afinidad Huasteca cuya mayor actividad se dio en el período clásico (entre 500 y 700 d.C.; fechas de C14), han revelado una escultura de barro asociada con restos de uno de los edificios principales, que representa un oso de cuerpo entero (se determinó como un oso negro, Ursus americanus, dado que es la única especie presente en el área). Además de la escultura, se encontraron vasijas y fragmentos cerámicos, excavados en otros edificios, que muestran rasgos diagnósticos de la cabeza de un oso.
El presente estudio analiza este primer y singular hallazgo para Mesoamérica, enfatizando su relevancia para la región. Se analizan las relaciones entre la efigie principal de oso como parte de un edificio y las numerosas vasijas con representaciones ursiformes, para explorar el posible significado cultural local de esta especie animal.
This work presents updates in the diagnostics systems, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations and simulations of microwave heating scenarios of the small modular Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). Similarly, the design of a flexible bolometer and magnetic diagnostics (a set of Mirnov coils, Rogowski coils and two diamagnetic loops) are introduced. Furthermore, new MHD equilibrium calculations for the plasma of the SCR-1 device were performed using the VMEC code including the poloidal cross-section of the magnetic flux surfaces at different toroidal positions, profiles of the rotational transform, magnetic well, magnetic shear and total magnetic field norm. Charged particle orbits in vacuum magnetic field were computed by the magnetic field solver BS-SOLCTRA (Vargas et al. In 27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018), 2018. IAEA). A visualization framework was implemented using Paraview (Solano-Piedra et al. In 23rd IAEA Technical Meeting on the Research Using Small Fusion Devices (23rd TM RUSFD), 2017) and compared with magnetic mapping results (Coto-Vílchez et al. In 16th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), 2017, pp. 43–46). Additionally, simulations of microwave heating scenarios were performed by the IPF-FDMC full-wave code. These simulations calculate the conversion of the ordinary waves to extraordinary waves and allow us to identify the location where the conversion takes place. Finally, the microwave heating scenarios for the
toroidal position are presented. The microwave heating scenarios showed that the O–X–B mode conversion is around 12–14 %. It was possible to identify the spatial zone where the conversion takes place (upper hybrid frequency).
The COVID-19 outbreak could be considered as an uncontrollable stressful life event. Lockdown measures have provoked a disruption of daily life with a great impact over older adults’ health and well-being. Nevertheless, eudaimonic well‐being plays a protective role in confronting adverse circumstances, such as the COVID-19 situation. This study aims to assess the association between age and psychological well-being (personal growth and purpose in life). Young–old (60–70 years) and old–old (71–80 years) community-dwelling Spaniards (N = 878) completed a survey and reported on their sociodemographic characteristics and their levels of health, COVID-19 stress-related, appraisal, and personal resources. Old–old did not evidence poorer psychological well-being than young–old. Age has only a negative impact on personal growth. The results also suggest that the nature of the COVID-19 impact (except for the loss of a loved one) may not be as relevant for the older adults’ well-being as their appraisals and personal resources for managing COVID-related problems. In addition, these results suggest that some sociodemographic and health-related variables have an impact on older adults’ well-being. Thus, perceived-health, family functioning, resilience, gratitude, and acceptance had significant associations with both personal growth and purpose in life. Efforts to address older adults’ psychological well-being focusing on older adults’ personal resources should be considered.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
Although dried orange pulp (DOP) may conveniently replace cereals in ruminant diets, few studies have considered similar diet substitution for goats. We hypothesised that DOP could replace cereal-based concentrate in goat diets without detrimental effects on growth performance and carcass quality of suckling kids and milk performance and blood biochemical parameters of dams in early lactation. We also hypothesised that DOP substitution may increase the levels of antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds and vitamin E, in milk and improve its total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Therefore, 44 primiparous Payoya dairy goats were allocated to three experimental groups, each fed a different diet: control (CD, n = 14) based on a commercial concentrate with alfalfa hay as forage; and DOP40 (n = 16) in which 40% and DOP80 (n = 14) in which 80% of the cereal in the concentrate were replaced by DOP. The experiment lasted from the final month of pregnancy to 55 days postpartum. The DOP diets did not affect suckling kids’ carcass quality, but at 28 days, led to improvement in live weight (LW) and average daily gain (ADG) from birth, although no differences were found between DOP40 and DOP80 (for CD, DOP40 and DOP80, LW at 28 days was 8.00, 8.58 and 8.34 kg and ADG was 184, 199 and 195 g/day, respectively). Diet had no significant effect on milk yield (average daily milk yield and total yield at 55 days were 1.66 l/day and 90.6 l, respectively) and commercial and fatty acid composition. Nevertheless, α-tocopherol, total phenolic compound (TPC) and TAC concentration in milk increased with substitution of cereals by DOP (for CD, DOP40 and DOP80, concentration of α-tocopherol was 21.7, 32.8 and 42.3 μg/100 g, TPCs was 63.5, 84.1 and 102 mg gallic acid equivalents/l, and TAC was 6.63, 11.1 and 12.8 μmol Trolox equivalents/ml, respectively). Every plasma biochemistry parameter considered was within reference values for healthy goats; therefore, no pathological effect was detected for these variables due to dietary treatment. However, DOP diets caused a reduction in plasmatic creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, implying reduced oxidative damage to muscles. In conclusion, DOP may be an interesting alternative to cereals in early lactation goat diets for increasing farmers’ income and the healthy antioxidant capacity of milk.
Despite lithium has been used for the last 50 years as a maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder during pregnancy, there is limited information about perinatal clinical outcomes from fetal exposure to lithium.
1. To quantify the rate of lithium placental passage
2. To assess any association between plasma concentration of lithium at delivery and perinatal outcome.
Observational and prospective study. Subjects: Women in maintenance treatment with lithium, being attended during pregnancy at the Perinatal Psychiatry Programme of Hospital Clínic (Barcelona, Spain) between 2007 and 2009. Procedure: We assessed sociodemographical data; dose/day of lithium carbonate; other drugs doses; plasmatic concentration of lithium carbonate in maternal blood intrapartum and in the umbilical cord; obstetrical maternal complications; gestational age at delivery; weight at delivery; Apgar scores; congenital malformations; hospital stays, infant serum concetrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Eight mother-child diads. Mean age of the mother (SD): 32.1 (4,7); 100% caucasian and married. Mean dose of maternal lithium (SD): 675mg (237,5mg). Premature rupture of membranes (%):25. Gestational mean age (in weeks) (SD): 39,9 (1). Birth weight (SD) : 3625gr (451,2gr); Mean Apgar1min (SD): 8,38 (1,1); Mean Apgar5min (SD): 9,75 (0,4). Loss of fetal intrapartum wellness (%): 12,5. Days of hospitalization (mean) (SD):9,5(16,6). Lithium plasmatic concentration (mEq/L), mean (SD): maternal 0,45(0,1), umbilical cord 0,33(0,1), lithium ratio uc/m 0,93 (0,3); infant TSH μU/mL mean (SD): 4,9(4,6).
Lithium placental passsage was 0,93 (0,63-1,07). ≤At umbilical cord lithium levels ≤ 0.60 mEq/L, we didn't have any preterm deliveries, low birth weight newborns, nor neonatal complications.
To elucidate the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), we examined the evolution of GAD symptoms in two groups of newly diagnosed patients; one group according to DSM-IV criteria and the other, according to broader criteria.
Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics. Patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and subjects with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broader criteria were compared. Broadening criteria was considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD. Socio-demographic data, medical history and functional outcome measures were collected three times during a 6-month period.
3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 12.8% excluded because not fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,815 patients in DSM-IV group (DG) and 1,264 in broad group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics at baseline and most patients (about 80%), even newly diagnosed were exposed previously to pharmacological therapies (mainly benzodiazepines) of their anxiety symptoms. As a result of treatment at psychiatric clinics, the percentage of patients without symptoms of anxiety as per HAM-A scale were 49.0% and 58.0%, respectively at the 6 month visit (p=0.261). Similarly, responder rate (≥ 50% reduction of baseline scoring) were, respectively, 59.7% and 67.7% (p=0.103). Improvement in MADRS scores were observed in both group to a similar extent; 12.1 and 12.5 points average reduction respectively (p=0.264).
Broadening of GAD criteria could lead to earlier diagnosis that will benefit patients by starting appropriate treatment sooner.
To analyse the effect of Pregabalin (PGB) on anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with refractory-severe Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and severe concomitant depressive disorder.
Post-hoc analysis of a multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics to ascertain the impact of broadening GAD criteria. Men and women above 18 years, with GAD (DSM-IV criteria), PGB naïve and refractory to a previous course of benzodiazepines and/or anti-depressive drugs (minimum 3 months) and severe symptoms of anxiety (HAM-A ≥ 24) and depression (MADRS ≥ 35) were included. Changes in HAM-A and MADRS were assessed after 6 months of receiving PGB as per psychiatrist's judgement.
159 patients [69.2% women, 45.9 (12.6) years] fulfilled criteria for analysis. Respectively, 92% and 90% of subjects were previously exposed to benzodiazepines and anti-depressives before adding PGB [mean dose: 223.1 (126.3) mg/day]. PGB therapy reduced both anxiety and depressive baseline symptoms by a mean of, respectively in HAM-A and MADRS scales, 57.9% (from 35.5±5.8 to 14.8±9.4; p< 0.001, effect size: 3.57) and 58.1% (from 39.4±4.3 to 16.5±10.3; p< 0.001, effect size: 5.33). As a result, the percentages of patients without symptoms of both anxiety and depression were 34.4% and 40.9%, respectively at the 6 month visit (p< 0.001 in all cases). Similarly, responder rates (≥ 50% reduction of baseline scoring) were 63.1% and 62.9%.
Despite limitations, Pregabalin therapy had a meaningful and significant effect of symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with severe refractory GAD and concomitant severe depressive disorder.
Two studies to date have been published regarding the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients. The unadjusted prevalence rates reported were 30% and 32%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of 142 bipolar patients from Spain.
Bipolar patients (ICD-10 criteria) from 11 centres in Spain were assessed cross-sectionally for metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP ATP III criteria.
The mean age was 47.3 (SD 14.5), 51.1% were male. On average, patients were receiving 2.8 (SD 1.3) drugs for the treatment of their bipolar disorder. Ninety-one percent were receiving mood stabilizers, 63.4% antipsychotics and 29.6 antidepressants. Eighty-seven percent of the antipsychotics prescribed were atypicals. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our sample was 24.6% Fifty-seven percent of the sample met the criterion for abdominal obesity, 37.4% for met the criterion for hypertriglyceridemia, 36.4% for low HDL-cholesterol, 25.2% for high blood pressure and 12.5% for high fasting glucose. No statistically significant difference was found between with and without the metabolic syndrome for gender, illness status (acute versus in remission), CGI-S-BP scores and number of medications used. Patients taking tow mood stabilizers had significantly higher metabolic syndrome rates than patients taking one mood stabilizer and than patients without mood stabilizer treatment (40% versus 17.8% and 11.1% respectively, p .02).
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients is high. It appears to be higher than that estimated for the Spanish general population.
At present,the need of antipsychotic treatments for the improvement of the condition of people with psychotic disorders is unquestionable.Despite the current availability of highly effective drugs with few secondary effects,the main cause behind hospitalization is still the lack of compliance.
Analysis of the determining variables behind the need for hospitalization and the influence of the types of antipsychotic treatments.
Retrospective and follow-up analysis of psychotic patients hospitalized in the Psychiatric Ward of the Hospital de Conxo (1998-2005).Three groups of patients:with Oral neuroleptics(170), with Depot typical neuroleptics (238),with Long-Acting Risperidone(60);and comparison based on treatment maintenance.
Males,day-to-day living with the family of origin and single status are predominant in all three groups,although in a higher proportion in the Long-Acting Risperidone one(75,71 and 85%respectively).Only 7% of the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone completed their university studies,62% were pensioners.The average duration of hospitalization periods is 21 days for the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone,23.3 days in the Oral group,29.5 days in the Depot group.The main cause behind re-hospitalization is the lack of compliance(68% in Depot group),whilst after the introduction of Long-Acting Risperidone,no compliance rate is 59%.If we compare the number of hospitalizations/year of the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone,before and after its introduction,the rate is reduced significantly from 0.89 to 0.73.
Despite the fact that patients treated with Long-Acting Risperidone show a more seriously ill condition and less social capacity,they have less need for hospitalization than patients treated with Depot neuroleptics.Median lengths of stay were shorter than patients in the other two groups,and are less re-hospitalized after the introduction of this treatment.
The pharmacological treatment with oral Risperidona is used for years in infanto-juvenile psychiatry. In many occasions difficulty exists for the fulfillment; well for the appearance of adverse effects or for rejection to the capture or for difficulty of familiar fulfillment.
To expose from the clinical and welfare expectation, the experience with injectable Risperidona of long duration with three cases clinical whose principal diagnosis is of Mental Delay Moderated with alteration of the associate behavior.
Material and methods
I marry 1: 14-year-old Teenager of age attended in our CSM for Mental Delay and Disorder of conduct to familiar and school level.
CI = 50. It has received diverse antipsychotic and stabilizing treatments of oral form being the discontinuous capture. For one year in treatment with injectable Risperidona 50 mgr/14 days, answering favorably to the treatment, diminishing the conducts heteroagresivas that he was presenting to the beginning.
I marry 2: 15-year-old Teenager of age late Mental and disorder of the disturbing behavior with episodes d excitation, irritability and loss of control.
Not clinical stabilization with oral treatment for lack of familiar adherence. We introduce injectable Risperidona, 7,5 mgr/14 days, pupil to the family to mint of the importance of the treatment and the facility of administration. It improved the adherence to the center and therefore, clinical improvement.
I marry 3: Preadolescente and 13 years and age with compatible symptoms late Mental Moderates do and autistic features with important estereotipias and autoaggressions. For a few months in treatment with Risperidona inyecable 37,5 mgr/14 days with clinical improvement.
To evaluate social and occupational functioning in patients in partial remission (PR) compared with patients in complete remission (CR) of a major depressive disorder (MDD) episode.
Subjects and methods
This is a six-month prospective study. PR was defined as a score more than 7 and less or equal to 15 in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and CR as less or equal to 7. All patients had been on acute antidepressant treatment during the previous three months and no longer met criteria for MDD. Functioning was assessed by the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS).
Mean (S.D.) patient age was 50.5 (14.5) years (N = 292) and 77% were female. At baseline, partial remitters showed greater impairment in social and occupational functioning than complete remitters (62.8 [12.6] versus 80.4 [10.5], respectively; P < .0001). After six months, only 47% PR versus 77% CR reached normal functioning, and SOFAS ratings for PR were below normal range (76.2 [12.3] PR versus 84.6 [9.4] CR; P < .0001). PR reported three times more days absent from work due to sickness than CR (63 days versus 20 days; P < .001).
We conclude that PR of an MDD episode is associated with significant functional impairment that persists even after nine months of antidepressant treatment. Our results underline the importance of treating the patient until achieving full remission.
Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical spectrum of musical hallucinations.
We analysed demographic and clinical features of cases published in English, Italian, French or Spanish between 1991 and 2006 registered in MEDLINE, including three of our own cases. The cases were separated into four groups according to their main diagnoses (hearing impairment; psychiatric disorder; neurological disorder; toxic or metabolic disorder).
115 patients with musical hallucinations were included, of which 63.5% were female. The mean age was 57,25 years. Main diagnoses were: psychiatric disorder (46.1%; schizophrenia 30.4%), neurological disorder (21,7%), hearing impairment (17,4%), toxic or metabolic disorder (12.2%) and 2.6% other diagnoses.
61.7% patients presented simple diagnoses while 36.5% presented two or more diagnoses. 2.1% of patients didn't receive any diagnoses. 35.7% of patients and 60.9% of non psychiatric patients presented hearing impairment.
Both instrumental and vocal were the more frequent musical hallucinations and most of the patients had insight about the abnormality of their perceptions. Another kind of hallucinations was present in 40.9% of patients, auditory hallucinations being the most common. Also, 38,3% of the global sample had abnormalities in brain structural image (MRI, CT).
Musical hallucinations are a heterogeneous phenomenon in clinical practice. published cases describe them as more common in women and in psychiatric and neurological patients. Hearing impairment seem to be an important risk factor in the development of musical hallucinations.
Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are low molecular weight highly protonated aliphatic molecules that physiologically modulate NMDA, AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors and limbic dopaminergic neurotransmission. Previous studies had demonstrated that polyamine metabolism might be disrupted in schizophrenia, what could potentially be linked to glutamatergic dysfunction. In particular, polyamine levels in blood and fibroblast cultures from patients with schizophrenia had previously been found to be higher than in healthy controls. Indeed, a significant positive correlation between blood polyamine levels and severity of illness may exist.
In order to test potential differences in blood polyamine levels between drug-free schizophrenia in-patients (n = 12), and healthy controls (n = 26, blood donors), spermidine (spd), spermine (spm), and spermidine/spermine index (spd/spm) were determined using HPLC after dansylation.
No significant differences were found between groups (t = 0,974; df = 36; P = 0,337 for spd, t = l0, 52; df = 36; P = 0,959 for Spm, and, t = 0, 662; df = 36; P = 0,512 for spd/spm).
Though we couldn’t replicate previous findings suggesting disturbances in blood polyamine levels in schizophrenia, this issue may be a promising target. Future research should take into account possible factors such as sex, nutritional state, and stress.
We conducted a naturalistic, multicenter, 24-hour, nonrandomized, observational study describing for the first time the effectiveness and safety of intramuscular (IM) olanzapine to control agitation and aggression in “real world” patients with psychosis. The data thus obtained was compared with that reported from randomized double-blind clinical trials.
92 patients attending psychiatric emergency settings were enrolled. The study subjects were 44 male and 48 female patients with a mean age of 36.5 ± 12 years and DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of schizophrenia (48.9%), psychotic disorder not specified (23.9%) or bipolar disorder (27.2%). 10 mg IM olanzapine was administered to all patients. An optional second injection was permitted ≥ 2 hours later in line with hospital policy. Evaluations (PANSS-EC and CGI-S) were performed at baseline and 2 and 24 hours following the IM injection.
Two hours after IM olanzapine was administered, a mean decrease of –9.6 in the PANSS-EC from a baseline score of 26.5 was recorded. At the 24-hour endpoint a statistically and clinically significant reduction in the PANSS-EC scores (11.6 ± 5.3) was observed as compared with values at study entry (26.5 ± 5.9) and at 2 hours endpoint (16.9 ± 9.3), which represent a mean decrease of –14.9 and –5.3, respectively.
The present naturalistic study provides naturalistic data on the effectiveness of IM olanzapine in the treatment of acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar mania that is in line the data obtained in randomized double-blind clinical trials.
To evaluate the impact of the “Spanish Consensus on Physical Health in Patients with Schizophrenia” on psychiatrists’ evaluations of the physical health of patients with schizophrenia.
Epidemiological, non-interventional, national, multicentre study, with two retrospective, cross-sectional data collection stages in which 229 psychiatrists evaluated 1193 clinical records of patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10) seen in January and September of 2007.
Mean age of the patients was 39.7 ± 11.6 years, 65.5% were men, diagnosed for schizophrenia 14.0 ± 10.3 years ago. Forty percent of the patients suffer from a concomitant disease, the most prevalent being hypercholesterolemia (46.3%), hypertriglyceridaemia (33.5%) and arterial hypertension (26.0%). The difference in the number of patients who had all the physical measurements taken between the two cross-sectional evaluations was 13.8% (CI: 11.8%, 15.7%). The differences for each parameter were: weight 13.7% (CI: 11.7%, 15.6%), BMI 13.58% (CI: 11.6%, 15.5%), waist circumference 14.0% (CI: 12.0%, 15.39%), lipid profile 2.9% (CI: 1.9%, 3.9%) and glycaemia 2.6% (CI: 1.7%, 3.5%).
These results imply that the dissemination of the “Consensus on Physical Health in Schizophrenia Patients”, and possibly other actions, has made psychiatrists more aware of an integral approach to patients with schizophrenia, promoting increased monitoring of the physical health of these patients.