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Alterations in reinforcement-based decision making may be associated with increased psychiatric vulnerability in children who have experienced maltreatment. A probabilistic passive avoidance task and a model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging analytic approach were implemented to assess the neurocomputational components underlying decision making: (a) reinforcement expectancies (the representation of the outcomes associated with a stimulus) and (b) prediction error signaling (the ability to detect the differences between expected and actual outcomes). There were three main findings. First, the maltreated group (n = 18; mean age = 13), relative to nonmaltreated peers (n = 19; mean age = 13), showed decreased activity during expected value processing in a widespread network commonly associated with reinforcement expectancies representation, including the striatum (especially the caudate), the orbitofrontal cortex, and medial temporal structures including the hippocampus and insula. Second, consistent with previously reported hyperresponsiveness to negative cues in the context of childhood abuse, the maltreated group showed increased prediction error signaling in the middle cingulate gyrus, somatosensory cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and thalamus. Third, the maltreated group showed increased activity in frontodorsal regions and in the putamen during expected value representation. These findings suggest that early adverse environments disrupt the development of decision-making processes, which in turn may compromise psychosocial functioning in ways that increase latent vulnerability to psychiatric disorder.
Altered autobiographical memory (ABM) functioning has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder and may represent one mechanism by which childhood maltreatment elevates psychiatric risk.
To investigate the impact of childhood maltreatment on ABM functioning.
Thirty-four children with documented maltreatment and 33 matched controls recalled specific ABMs in response to emotionally valenced cue words during functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Children with maltreatment experience showed reduced hippocampal and increased middle temporal and parahippocampal activation during positive ABM recall compared with peers. During negative ABM recall they exhibited increased amygdala activation, and greater amygdala connectivity with the salience network.
Childhood maltreatment is associated with altered ABM functioning, specifically reduced activation in areas encoding specification of positive memories, and greater activation of the salience network for negative memories. This pattern may confer latent vulnerability to future depression and posttraumatic stress disorder.
A series of ice cores from sites with different snow-accumulation rates across Law Dome, East Antarctica, was investigated for methanesulphonic acid (MSA) movement. the precipitation at these sites (up to 35 km apart) is influenced by the same air masses, the principal difference being the accumulation rate. At the low-accumulation-rate W20k site (0.17m ice equivalent), MSAwas completely relocated from the summer to winter layer. Moderate movement was observed at the intermediate-accumulation-rate site (0.7m ice equivalent), Dome Summit South (DSS), while there was no evidence of movement at the high-accumulation-rate DE08 site (1.4m ice equivalent). the main DSS record of MSA covered the epoch AD 1727–2000 and was used to investigate temporal post-depositional changes. Co-deposition of MSA and sea-salt ions was observed in the surface layers, outside of the main summer MSA peak,which complicates interpretation of these peaks as evidence of movement in deeper layers. A seasonal study of the 273 year DSS record revealed MSA migration predominantly from summer into autumn (in the up-core direction), but this migration was suppressed during the Tambora (1815) and unknown (1809) volcanic eruption period, and enhanced during an epoch (1770–1800) with high summer nitrate levels. A complex interaction between the gradients in nss-sulphate, nitrate and sea salts (which are influenced by accumulation rate) is believed to control the rate and extent of movement of MSA.
Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject large quantities of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere. the aerosols that result from oxidation of the sulphur dioxide can produce significant cooling of the troposphere by reflecting or absorbing solar radiation. It is possible to obtain an estimate of the relative stratospheric sulphur aerosol concentration produced by different volcanoes by comparing sulphuric acid fluxes determined by analysis of polar ice cores. Here,we use a non-sea-salt sulphate time series derived from three well-dated Law Dome ice cores to investigate sulphuric acid flux ratios for major eruptions over the period AD 1301–1995. We use additional data from other cores to investigate systematic spatial variability in the ratios. Only for the Kuwae eruption (Law Dome ice date AD 1459.5) was the H2SO4 flux larger than that deposited by Tambora (Law Dome ice date AD 1816.7).
The interactions of strong-field few-cycle laser pulses with metastable states of noble gas atoms are examined. Metastable noble gas atoms offer a combination of low ionization potential and a relatively simple atomic structure, making them excellent targets for examining ionization dynamics in varying experimental conditions. A review of the current work performed on metastable noble gas atoms is presented.
A comprehensive study of the anisotropy (i.e. streaming) of solar cosmic rays at energies ~10 MeV revealed two distinct types (McCracken). The first occurs during onset phase of the event, is large (> 20%), and is really the flow of cosmic rays along lines of force driven by a density gradient. The second describes the decay of the event, is small (10%), and indicates a flow radially away from the Sun.
On 1971 January 24 a 3B flare at 18° N., 49° W. was associated with the acceleration of protons to relativistic energies; it was one of the rare events recorded by ground-level neutron monitors. Excellent radio coverage was obtained with single-frequency radiometers in the range 1000-9400 MHz, and at Culgoora with the 8-8000 MHz spectrograph and the 80 MHz radioheliograph. At the Earth relativistic protons and electrons arrived very promptly from the flare, whose site was near the foot of the nominal interplanetary field line which connects to the Earth.
Although cosmic rays detected in interplanetary space have often been correlated with visible flares at the Sun, little is known about the transport of these particles through the corona. Lin demonstrated a good correlation between ≳20 keV electron events detected by spacecraft near the Earth and type III radio bursts at the Sun. In a detailed investigation of many of these electron events from one particular active region source, Lin proposed that the injection of electrons was characterized by a source region in the corona which extended over ~70° in longitude, such that in this region the electrons had direct access to an ‘open cone’ of propagation in interplanetary space. When the spacecraft was situated outside this open cone (by up to 15°), impulsive electron events were still recorded, but these were now modified by diffusion through the corona of the electrons from the 70° source region.
Human campylobacteriosis exhibits a distinctive seasonality in temperate regions. This paper aims to identify the origins of this seasonality. Clinical isolates [typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)] and epidemiological data were collected from Scotland. Young rural children were found to have an increased burden of disease in the late spring due to strains of non-chicken origin (e.g. ruminant and wild bird strains from environmental sources). In contrast the adult population had an extended summer peak associated with chicken strains. Travel abroad and UK mainland travel were associated with up to 17% and 18% of cases, respectively. International strains were associated with chicken, had a higher diversity than indigenous strains and a different spectrum of MLST types representative of these countries. Integrating empirical epidemiology and molecular subtyping can successfully elucidate the seasonal components of human campylobacteriosis. The findings will enable public health officials to focus strategies to reduce the disease burden.
During a 15-month period in Scotland a small but important number of human Campylobacter cases (3·2%) arose from 91 putative household outbreaks. Of the 26 outbreaks with known strain composition, 89% were composed of the same MLST which supports the potential use of MLST in public health epidemiology. The number of cases associated with household outbreaks is much larger than general outbreaks and there is some evidence to indicate that there may be secondary transmission, although this is relatively rare.
Swabs and water samples from a hospital water system were cultured for legionellae over an extended period. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, including outbreak associated strains, were isolated in small numbers from approximately 5% of these samples despite implementation of the current DHSS/Welsh Office regulations. No cases of nosocomial legionnaires' disease were proven during the study. Physical cleaning and chemical sterilization of taps, and replacement of washers with ‘approved’ brands did not eradicate the organisms. Eradication of legionellae in hospital water supplies appears to be unnecessary in preventing nosocomial legionnaires' disease provided the current DHSS/Welsh Office recommendations are implemented.
A point source outbreak of haemorrhagic colitis due to Escherichia coli O 157. H7 producing verocytotoxin (VT), took place following a christening party in Birmingham in June 1987. Twenty-six people were affected, six were admitted to hospital and one developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome: there were no deaths. VT + E. coli O 157. H7 was isolated from 13 (57%) of 23 faecal specimens from affected people and from 3 (9%) of 33 specimens from asymptomatic people. Free VT was detected in the faeces of one further asymptomatic person. Illness was associated with eating turkey-roll sandwiches (P < 0·001) suggesting that cold meats might be an important source of infection.
Scouring (diarrhoea) is a major concern for sheep producers as the accumulation of faecal material (dags) around the breech pre-disposes sheep to flystrike. Scouring occurs when the consistency of faeces is fluid with a low percentage of dry matter. In temperate areas such as the southern half of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, scouring is associated with ingestion of parasitic nematode larvae, mainly Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Larsen et al., 1994). Breeding sheep to be resistant to these nematodes is a sustainable parasite-control strategy due to reduced reliance on chemical treatment. However, in adult sheep, scouring appears equally prevalent in resistant animals and, in some environments, is even more severe than in susceptible sheep (Karlsson et al., 2004). In this experiment, we investigated how faecal dry matter (FDM) in sheep from a flock bred for resistance to parasitic nematodes changed when challenged with infective larvae. We expected that FDM would be lower in challenged sheep compared to unchallenged controls, and FDM would also be lower in sheep with high dag scores compared to sheep with low dag scores.
Muscle contractile and metabolic characteristics were studied on nine cloned and eight non-cloned (control) heifers. The animals were submitted to repeated biopsies of the semitendinosus (ST) muscle at the ages of 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The contractile type was determined from the proportion of the different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms separated by electrophoresis. Glycolytic metabolism was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and oxidative metabolism was assessed by isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activities. In cloned heifers at 8 months of age, there was a greater proportion of MyHC I (slow oxidative isoform) and MyHC IIa (fast oxido-glycolytic isoform), a lower proportion of MyHC IIx (fast glycolytic isoform), greater COX and HAD activity and a lower LDH/ICDH ratio compared with control heifers. Thus, young cloned heifers had slower muscle types associated with a more oxidative muscular metabolism than control heifers. From 12 months of age onwards, no significant differences were observed between cloned and control heifers. A delay in muscle differentiation and maturation in cloned heifers is hypothesised and discussed.
Chemical weapons exercise an enduring and often powerful psychological effect. This had been recognized during the First World War when it was shown that the symptoms of stress mimicked those of mild exposure to gas. Debate about long-term effects followed the suggestion that gassing triggered latent tuberculosis.
A random sample of 103 First World War servicemen awarded a war pension for the effects of gas, but without evidence of chronic respiratory pathology, were subjected to cluster analysis using 25 common symptoms. The consistency of symptom reporting was also investigated across repeated follow-ups.
Cluster analysis identified four groups: one (n=56) with a range of somatic symptoms, a second (n=30) with a focus on the respiratory system, a third (n=12) with a predominance of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and a fourth (n=5) with a narrow band of symptoms related to the throat and breathing difficulties. Veterans from the neuropsychiatric cluster had multiple diagnoses including neurasthenia and disordered action of the heart, and reported many more symptoms than those in the three somatic clusters.
Mild or intermittent respiratory disorders in the post-war period supported beliefs about the damaging effects of gas in the three somatic clusters. By contrast, the neuropsychiatric group did not report new respiratory illnesses. For this cluster, the experience of gassing in a context of extreme danger may have been responsible for the intensity of their symptoms, which showed no sign of diminution over the 12-year follow-up.
The human oral microbial ecosystem is one of the best characterized and highly complex bacterial communities known. It is estimated that about 600 bacterial species exist in the mouth and that 85% of those are currently known at the molecular (16 S rRNA) level. The major bacterial physiologies occurring in the oral cavity have been known for many years, and knowledge exists of the distribution of organisms in time (as plaque accumulates) and in space (different environments within the mouth). However, only rudimentary data are available on interactions between the bacterial species. It is precisely these interactions that, along with the interactions of the developing community with its human host, must drive the succession of genera that is observed to occur. In the reductionist scientific approach to studying such interactions, disrupted plaque is used to isolate single organisms, and interactions between these organisms are examined by recombining the organisms ex situ. Lessons learned from these in vitro studies can be applied to understand empirical observations made in vivo. However, this approach begins with the primary assumption that the chosen interaction does in fact occur in vivo. The accessibility and the well-characterized nature of the oral ecosystem presents an opportunity for approaching the problem from the opposite direction; one can capture a community very early in development in vivo, then apply in vitro methods to sort out the interactions within that community. This latter approach begins with a set of organisms known to interact in vivo. A combination of both approaches should yield robust microbiological data suitable for in silico modeling and analyses.