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We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P < 0·02) and 2·6% per day (P < 0·07). An increasing number of persons per household, and to a lesser extent, the passage of time after onset of the outbreak were risk factors for household Ebola acquisition, emphasizing the importance of prompt public health interventions that prioritize the most populated households. Using GIS with GEE can reveal complex spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.
To systematically summarise the peer-reviewed literature relating to the aetiology, clinical presentation, investigation and treatment of geniculate neuralgia.
Articles published in English between 1932 and 2012, identified using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases.
The search terms ‘geniculate neuralgia’, ‘nervus intermedius neuralgia’, ‘facial pain’, ‘otalgia’ and ‘neuralgia’ were used to identify relevant papers.
Fewer than 150 reported cases were published in English between 1932 and 2012. The aetiology of the condition remains unknown, and clinical presentation varies. Non-neuralgic causes of otalgia should always be excluded by a thorough clinical examination, audiological assessment and radiological investigations before making a diagnosis of geniculate neuralgia. Conservative medical treatment is always the first-line therapy. Surgical treatment should be offered if medical treatment fails. The two commonest surgical options are transection of the nervus intermedius, and microvascular decompression of the nerve at the nerve root entry zone of the brainstem. However, extracranial intratemporal division of the cutaneous branches of the facial nerve may offer a safer and similarly effective treatment.
The response to medical treatment for this condition varies between individuals. The long-term outcomes of surgery remain unknown because of limited data.
We report about first results of the RoboPol project. RoboPol is a large-sample, high-cadence, polarimetric monitoring program of blazars in optical wavelengths, using a camera specifically constructed for this project, mounted at the University of Crete's Skinakas Observatory 1.3 m telescope. The analysis of RoboPol data is conducted in conjunction with Fermi LAT gamma-ray data, and multifrequency radio data from the OVRO (Caltech), F-GAMMA (MPIfR), and Torun (NCU) monitoring programs. Using carefully selected samples of gamma-ray bright and weak blazars we investigate a connection between their optical polarization behaviour and variability properties in gamma. We examine a relationship of gamma flares with polarization angle rotations relying on robust statistical criteria. We analyse also the optical polarization variability itself in order to establish some restrictions on physical models of blazars jets.
The present study evaluated whether the inclusion of protein (PRO) and amino acids (AA) within a maltodextrin (MD) and galactose (GAL) recovery drink enhanced post-exercise liver and muscle glycogen repletion. A total of seven trained male cyclists completed two trials, separated by 7 d. Each trial involved 2 h of standardised intermittent cycling, followed by 4 h recovery. During recovery, one of two isoenergetic formulations, MD–GAL (0·9 g MD/kg body mass (BM) per h and 0·3 g GAL/kg BM per h) or MD–GAL-PRO+AA (0·5 g MD/kg BM per h, 0·3 g GAL/kg BM per h, 0·4 g whey PRO hydrolysate plus l-leucine and l-phenylalanine/kg BM per h) was ingested at every 30 min. Liver and muscle glycogen were measured after depletion exercise and at the end of recovery using 1H-13C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite higher postprandial insulin concentations for MD–GAL-PRO+AA compared with MD–GAL (61·3 (se 6·2) v. 29·6 (se 3·0) mU/l, (425·8 (se 43·1) v. 205·6 (se 20·8) pmol/l) P= 0·03), there were no significant differences in post-recovery liver (195·3 (se 2·6) v. 213·8 (se 18·0) mmol/l) or muscle glycogen concentrations (49·7 (se 4·0) v. 51·1 (se 7·9) mmol/l). The rate of muscle glycogen repletion was significantly higher for MD–GAL compared with MD–GAL-PRO+AA (5·8 (se 0·7) v. 3·7 (se 0·6) mmol/l per h, P= 0·04), while there were no significant differences in the rate of liver glycogen repletion (15·0 (se 2·5) v. 13·0 (se 2·7) mmol/l per h). PRO and AA within a MD–GAL recovery drink, compared with an isoenergetic mix of MD–GAL, did not enhance but matched liver and muscle glycogen recovery. This suggests that the increased postprandial insulinaemia only compensated for the lower MD content in the MD–GAL-PRO+AA treatment.
Continuous decrease of the feature size of transistors in modern integrated circuits (ICs) constrains thickness of auxiliary dielectric layers in interconnects because of their relatively high dielectric constant, which reduces the efficiency of low-k material integration. Dielectric materials used today as barrier or etch-stop layers are usually SiN (k ∼ 7.0) and SiCN (k ∼ 4.8), which k-value significantly exceeds that of recent ultra low-k materials (k < 2.2). In our work we have investigated thin films of rigid-chain polyimide (PI) with a k-value of about 3.2-3.3. This film was deposited using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and can be as thin as several monolayers. The intermolecular interaction of densely packed precursor macromolecules within a monolayer formed at the water-air interface makes it possible to avoid penetration of precursor material inside the pores. The latter peculiarity of the deposition process results in a pore sealing effect using a 4 nm PI film.
The different incidence rates of, and risk factors for, depression in different countries argue for the need to have a specific risk algorithm for each country or a supranational risk algorithm. We aimed to develop and validate a predictD-Spain risk algorithm (PSRA) for the onset of major depression and to compare the performance of the PSRA with the predictD-Europe risk algorithm (PERA) in Spanish primary care.
A prospective cohort study with evaluations at baseline, 6 and 12 months. We measured 39 known risk factors and used multi-level logistic regression and inverse probability weighting to build the PSRA. In Spain (4574), Chile (2133) and another five European countries (5184), 11 891 non-depressed adult primary care attendees formed our at-risk population. The main outcome was DSM-IV major depression (CIDI).
Six variables were patient characteristics or past events (sex, age, sex×age interaction, education, physical child abuse, and lifetime depression) and six were current status [Short Form 12 (SF-12) physical score, SF-12 mental score, dissatisfaction with unpaid work, number of serious problems in very close persons, dissatisfaction with living together at home, and taking medication for stress, anxiety or depression]. The C-index of the PSRA was 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79–0.84]. The Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI) was 0.0558 [standard error (s.e.)=0.0071, Zexp=7.88, p<0.0001] mainly due to the increase in sensitivity. Both the IDI and calibration plots showed that the PSRA functioned better than the PERA in Spain.
The PSRA included new variables and afforded an improved performance over the PERA for predicting the onset of major depression in Spain. However, the PERA is still the best option in other European countries.
Previous work which appeared to show that some strains of mice taste glycine solutions as bitter has been found to be in error. The bitterness came from copper glycinate which formed in the brass drinking spouts. Taste testing with copper glycinate shows that the genetical data identifying the gene Glb are still valid. The close linkage of Glb and Rua has been confirmed. Most strains of mice prefer glycine solution to water, presumably because the glycine tastes sweet. The degree of preference for glycine is correlated with the degree of preference for other sweet substances such as saccharin or acesulfame. The gene dpa appears not to be involved.
The sweetness tasting gene Sac has been mapped to chromosome 4 at 8·1 ± 3·4 cM distal to Nppa (formerly Pnd). The bitterness tasting gene Soa is very closely linked to Prp on chromosome 6 (no recombinants among 67 backcross progeny). It is suggested that the sweetness and bitterness tasting genes have descended from a common ancestral tasting gene which existed before the tetraploidization of the genome which took place in early vertebrate evolution.
SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, is Herschel's submillimetre camera and spectrometer. It comprises a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 μm, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 194–672 μm. The design of SPIRE is described, and the expected scientific performance is summarised, based on modelling and flight instrument test results.
Given that numerous amphibians are suffering population declines, it is becoming increasingly important to examine the relationship between disease and environmental disturbance. Indeed, while many studies relate anthropogenic activity to changes in the parasitism of snails and fishes, little is known of the impact on the parasites of amphibians, particularly from agriculture. For 2 years, the parasite communities of metamorphic northern leopard frogs from 7 agricultural wetlands were compared with those from 2 reference wetlands to study differences in parasite community diversity and abundance of various species under pristine conditions and 3 categories of disturbance: only agricultural landscape, only pesticides, and agricultural landscape with pesticides. Agricultural (and urban) area was negatively related to species richness, and associated with the near absence of adult parasites and species that infect birds or mammals. We suggest that agriculture and urbanization may hinder parasite transmission to frogs by limiting access of other vertebrate hosts of their parasites to wetlands. The only parasite found at all localities was an unidentified echinostome infecting the kidneys. This parasite dominated communities in localities surrounded by the most agricultural land, suggesting generalist parasites may persist in disrupted habitats. Community composition was associated with dissolved organic carbon and conductivity, but few links were found with pesticides. Pollution effects may be masked by a strong impact of land use on parasite transmission.
To better understand the effects of magnetic nanoparticles to nuclear spectra and spin relaxation in different systems, we have studied 1H NMR spectra and spin dynamics of the host system in liquid and solid suspensions of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Significant line broadening of 1H NMR spectra and growing relaxation rates were observed with increased concentration of nanoparticles in the liquid systems, with the relation T1/T2 depending on the particular host. Solid systems demonstrate inhomogeneous broadening of the spectra and practically no dependence of T1 upon the nanoparticle concentration. We explain the experimental results taking into account predomination of diffusion as a source of the relaxation, and estimate effective parameters of relaxation in the systems in study.
We present first results from a coordinated multiwavelength study of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748 676. Fast UV, X-ray, and optical data were obtained including both spectral and timing information. We discuss how this study allows us to probe the temperature distribution within the binary and hence the geometry and efficiency of X-ray irradiation.
We examine a spiralling slender inviscid liquid jet which emerges from a rapidly
rotating orifice. The trajectory of this jet is determined using asymptotic methods,
and the stability using a multiple scales approach. It is found that the trajectory
of the jet becomes more tightly coiled as the Weber number is decreased. Unstable
travelling wave modes are found to grow along the jet. The breakup length of the jet
is calculated, showing good agreement with experiments.
We report the discovery of a new double image gravitational lens system B1030+074 which was found during the Jodrell Bank - VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). We have collected extensive radio data on the system using the VLA, MERLIN, the EVN and the VLBA as well as HST WFPC2 and NICMOS observations. The lensed images are separated by 1.56 arcseconds and their flux density ratio at centimetric wavelengths is approximately 14:1 although the ratio is slightly frequency dependent and the images appear to be time variable. The HST pictures show both the lensed images and the lensing galaxy close to the weaker image. The lensing galaxy has substructure which could be either part of the galaxy or a companion object. We have modeled B1030+074 using a Singular Isothermal Ellipsoid that yielded a time delay of 156/h50 days. This lens is likely to be suitable for the measurement of the Hubble constant.
High levels of soil aluminium place serious constraints on wheat
production on acidic soils, especially in the
tropical areas of Africa and South America. Conventional plant breeding
improved the tolerance of the wheat
crop, but available genetic variation is limited. The wild relatives of
provide a valuable gene pool for the
introduction of further genetic variation. One wild species,
Aegilops uniaristata Vis. (2n=2x=14,NN), is being
utilized as a new source of tolerance. Of the addition lines of individual
N genome chromosomes of A. uniaristata
to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) which have been established and
characterized, chromosome 3N has been shown
to confer tolerance to wheat. The three substitution lines in which 3N
the homoeologous wheat
chromosomes, 3A, 3B or 3D, have also been produced. Growing plants to maturity
in a low pH/high Al
hydroponics system confirmed that chromosome 3N conferred tolerance to
substitution lines as well as to the
addition line. By manipulating the genetic control of homoeologous
chromosome pairing, chromosome 3N is being
recombined with its wheat homoeologues in order to introduce a smaller
segment which carries the gene(s)
for tolerance but not the agronomically unacceptable brittle rachis gene
also carried on chromosome 3N.
In recent years there has been a substantial growth of interest in the history and literature of Jacobean England. Amongst the most important texts produced in that period were the writings of King James VI and I himself. Harvard University Press published The Political Works of James I, edited by Charles Howard McIlwain, in 1918. That volume has become quite a scarce book. Moreover, an examination of the text which McIlwain printed reveals a number of peculiarities. In James' longest work, the Basilicon Doron, marginal comments or summaries which were included in early editions were omitted by McIlwain. He based his edition of James' writings on a single source – the king's Workes of 1616 – and he introduced a good many misreadings into that version. For instance, on a surprisingly large number of occasions he strangely read the long ‘s’ of seventeenth-century script as an ‘f’. In consequence, such non-existent words as ‘trustieft’, ‘Papifts’, ‘feueritie’, ‘iustneffe’, ‘aduife’, and ‘feruants’ are scattered through his edition.
The present volume is intended to present more accurate texts of James' writings than McIlwain made available. Where appropriate, the Workes of 1616 has been used as copy-text, but in every case it has been compared with other early versions of the king's writings. McIlwain made no attempt to track down James' sources. I have traced the sources of most direct quotations, but have not tried to verify or decipher all the references in James' writings.
James VI and I was one of the most influential British political writers of the early modern period. His Basilicon Doron was a best-seller in England and circulated widely on the Continent (the details are discussed in Wormald 1991, 51–2). It was translated into Latin, French, Dutch, German, Swedish and other languages (a list of early translations in Craigie 1944–50, 2: 153–78, 188–90, includes thirty-eight items). The book was frequently quoted by political writers. So, too, were James' other works, and especially his speech to parliament of 21 March 1610. John Locke quoted this speech at length and approvingly. He referred respectfully to James as ‘that Learned King who well understood the Notions of things’ (Two Treatises of Government, second treatise, section 200). Thomas Hobbes likewise praised ‘our most wise’ King James (Leviathan chapter 19, final paragraph). Despite the major differences in their political thought, both Hobbes and Locke were able to praise James, for the king combined absolutist principles with an emphasis upon the monarch's duty to rule according to law and in the public good. The king's political philosophy was a nuanced, moderated absolutism. To understand his principles it is useful to look at the circumstances in which he developed them.
In 1566 Mary Queen of Scots gave birth to James. A year later she abdicated in her son's favour. This abdication had been forced upon her by powerful nobles allied with Protestant preachers.