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Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by roundworm parasites such as Brugia malayi that spread via a mosquito vector. In vitro culture of these parasites provides controlled conditions to understand parasite biology and provides a cheaper way to screen potential micro- and macrofilaricides. Published studies have used a wide array of approaches and metrics regarding in vitro cultures of B. malayi; as a result, drawing comparisons and identifying the reasons why inability to reproduce outcomes are difficult. This study sought to determine conditions that ensure reproducible outcomes and used evaluation metrics that are easily measured and can be automated to ensure objectivity. We found culturing B. malayi third-stage larvae (L3) in endothelial basal media supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and 75 µm ascorbic acid in a temperature- and humidity-controlled incubator produced better survival and molting rates as well as longer and more motile parasites than previously reported. The benefit of ascorbic acid seemed to be unique to L3 parasites, as the addition of ascorbic acid to adult parasites had no significant impact on survival or motility. The methods reported in this study will help in designing experiments for both parasite behaviour studies and drug screening applications for disease eradication.
We present an investigation of the halo dynamics of M31 using planetary nebulae velocities. We have performed on-band [OIII] and off-band continuum imaging for a 3.6 square degree area centred on M31 and follow-up spectroscopy for over 600 planetary nebulae candidates. In the future the halo mass will be measured and the mass distribution and velocity anisotropy will be constrained as a function of radius.
The results of a large radial velocity survey of the Draco and Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxies are presented. the velocity dispersion profiles of both objects are very similar: initially the dispersion increases with radius, while at radii approaching the outer limit of the stellar distribution we observe a sharp fall-off. We present the results of mass modeling based on these new data – the mass to light ratios are found to be about 400M⊙/L⊙. Evidence is also presented that the dark matter in the central regions of UMi has a core-like distribution. Finally, we demonstrate that the inner regions of UMi have not been affected by tides and discuss the implications of our data for MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND).
The ionization structures of AGNs are determined by the specific ionization mechanisms and the shapes of the ionizing continua. The technique of using emission-line intensity ratios to classify objects and investigate their ionization mechanisms is enhanced significantly by combining high-quality UV and optical spectrophotometry. The HST archive is an excellent source of such data.
The FOS spectra are recalibrated using the latest ‘average inverse sensitivity’ (AIS) calibration. This new method for flux calibrating FOS data (1) normalizes count data from all apertures to the 4”.3 aperture to account for changes of aperture throughput as a function of the Optical Telescope Assembly focus; (2) corrects the data for time-dependent detector sensitivity degradation; and (3) scales the data to the white-dwarf reference scale. The AIS calibration method has been developed over a period of several years, with improvements applied progressively based on observed deficiencies and/or discrepancies of the existing calibrations. Indeed, the final AIS calibration incorporates corrections in the wavelength overlap regions of adjacent gratings derived based on inconsistencies discovered as a result of this study of over 1000 FOS spectra.
We present the variability processing and analysis that is foreseen for the Gaia mission within Coordination Unit 7 (CU7) of the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). A top level description of the tasks is given.
Quantum dot gate (QDG) field-effect transistors (FET) have shown three-state transfer characteristics. Quantum dot channel (QDC) field-effect transistors (FET) have exhibited fourstate ID-VG characteristics. This project aims at studying the effect of incorporating cladded quantum dot layers in the gate region of QDC-FET. Four-state characteristics are explained by carrier transport in narrow energy mini-bands which are manifested in a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) channel. QDSL is formed by an array of cladded quantum dots (such as SiOx-Si and GeOx-Ge). Multi-state FETs are needed in multi-valued logic (MVL) that can reduce the number of gates and transistors in digital circuits. The fabricated device showed the four-state characteristic (OFF, ‘I1’, ‘I2’, ON).
Thin films of TiO2 were grown on SrTiO3 and Al2O3 using Ti(OC3H7)4 in the absence of any external oxygen source such as H2O or O2. On SrTiO3 (001), epitaxial anatase (001) formed even at temperatures (800 °C) above the anatase to rutile phase transition temperature. In situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was used to monitor structural evolution during growth, and the films were further characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray diffraction. Reaction kinetics were monitored using mass spectrometry, and these results, combined with temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy, gave some insight into the deposition process.
Near-square islands form during sub-monolayer homoepitaxial growth on metal (100) surfaces. Diffusion of these islands after deposition leads to collision of island pairs, typically corner-to-corner creating dumbbell-shaped clusters. Subsequent coalescence (or sintering) recovers a near-square equilibrium shape. This process is mediated by periphery diffusion (PD) and its study can provide detailed insight into the underlying dynamic processes and energetics. Atomistic modeling reveals that the size scaling of the characteristic relaxation time, τ, depends on the detailed energy barriers of various hopping processes that contribute to PD. Simulations without an extra kink or corner rounding barrier for PD reveals τ ∼ L4, while behavior approaching τ ∼ L3 is observed with a significant extra kink rounding barrier for PD. The latter is consistent with experimental observations for Ag/Ag(100) at 300 K.
Extensive information on the distribution of islands formed during submonolayer deposition is provided by the joint probability distribution (JPD) for island sizes, s, and capture zone areas, A. A key ingredient determining the form of the JPD is the impact of each nucleation event on existing capture zone areas. Combining a realistic characterization of such spatial aspects of nucleation with a factorization ansatz for the JPD, we provide a concise rate equation formulation for the variation with island size of both the capture zone area and the island density.
Analytical electron microscopy at high spatial resolution in a scanning-transmission mode has been used to investigate the effects of glassy or crystalline material additions on grain boundary chemistry in yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystals. Powders of additive phase were mixed into 3-mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (‘3Y-TZP’) or 8-mol% yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia polycrystals (‘8Y-CSZ’). Zirconias processed without additive phases were also examined
Without additives, grain boundaries were depleted in zirconium and enriched in yttrium. In 3Y-TZP with I wt% borosilicate glass, silicon was observed only at triple points, but not in grain boundaries. In 3Y-TZP with 1 wt% barium silicate glass, barium was observed both along grain boundaries and at triple points, whereas silicon was detected only within the triple points. This suggests either the composition of the additive phase at the grain boundary is different from that at the triple points, or that barium ions segregate to grain boundaries during processing. In 8Y-CSZ with I wt% silica, silicon was observed in grain boundaries by an EDS spatial differencing technique. In 8Y-CSZ with 10 wt% alumina, EDS revealed aluminum at all grain boundaries examined
The UK was one of few European countries to document a substantial wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in summer 2009. The First Few Hundred (FF100) project ran from April–June 2009 gathering information on early laboratory-confirmed cases across the UK. In total, 392 confirmed cases were followed up. Children were predominantly affected (median age 15 years, IQR 10–27). Symptoms were mild and similar to seasonal influenza, with the exception of diarrhoea, which was reported by 27%. Eleven per cent of all cases had an underlying medical condition, similar to the general population. The majority (92%) were treated with antiviral drugs with 12% reporting adverse effects, mainly nausea and other gastrointestinal complaints. Duration of illness was significantly shorter when antivirals were given within 48 h of onset (median 5 vs. 9 days, P=0·01). No patients died, although 14 were hospitalized, of whom three required mechanical ventilation. The FF100 identified key clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infection with this novel virus in near real-time.
There were four 1.5-hour sessions of Division I business meetings during the XXVIIth IAU General Assembly. The first three were devoted to the reports of Commissions, Working Groups and services associated with the Division, discussion about plans for the next triennium and future structure of the Division. Scientific presentations on the future space astrometric mission Gaia were made at the fourth session.
The Tarantula Survey is an ambitious ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Here, we introduce the scientific motivations of the survey and give an overview of the observational sample. Ultimately, quantitative analysis of every star, paying particular attention to the effects of rotational mixing and binarity, will be used to address fundamental questions in both stellar and cluster evolution.