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We present a detailed study of memory performance of titanium oxide (TiO2-x)-based resistive switching memories by modifying critical parameters of the films involved in the memory stack grown by reactive sputtering at room temperature. The device includes a Ti nanolayer at the Au/TiO2-x interface and it is defined by the following material stack: Au/Ti/TiO2-x/Au/SiO2/Si. We investigate the memory performance optimization of the device in terms of the Ti nanolayer thickness using as a starting point for the TiO2-x growth conditions these identified by varying the ratio of oxygen concentration to argon concentration by our previous results. Due to the superb ability of Ti to absorb oxygen atoms from the dielectric matrix, a large amount of oxygen vacancies is created, which are crucial for the stable function of the memory devices. We observe the existence of an optimum Ti thickness that if further increased gradually degrades the resistive switching behavior. The induced interface oxide thickness is found also to affect the fluctuation of the ON/OFF processes. In terms of electrical performance self-rectifying characteristics were recorded for all samples in the both resistance states. We then demonstrate that at least five-level resistance states could be obtained by modifying the compliance current, exhibiting excellent resistance uniformity and retention capability. The results are supported by C-AFM measurements demonstrating the scaling potential of the large area device discussed above.
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