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The Glasgow area has a combination of highly variable superficial deposits and a legacy of heavy industry, quarrying and mining. These factors create complex foundation and hydrological conditions, influencing the movement of contaminants through the subsurface and giving rise locally to unstable ground conditions. Digital geological three-dimensional models developed by the British Geological Survey are helping to resolve the complex geology underlying Glasgow, providing a key tool for planning and environmental management. The models, covering an area of 3200km2 to a depth of 1.2km, include glacial and post-glacial deposits and the underlying, faulted Carboniferous igneous and sedimentary rocks. Control data, including 95,000 boreholes, digital mine plans and published geological maps, were used in model development. Digital outputs from the models include maps of depth to key horizons, such as rockhead or depth to mine workings. The models have formed the basis for the development of site-scale high-resolution geological models and provide input data for a wide range of other applications from groundwater modelling to stochastic lithological modelling.
X-ray computed tomography (CT) measurements of live sheep have been used to predict carcass composition very accurately (Macfarlane et al., 2006). The utilisation of spiral CT scans (SCTS) for quantifying muscle volumes and weights, using automatic image analysis procedures has also been shown to be very accurate in sheep (Navajas et al., 2006). Although the limiting size of the CT gantry prevents CT scanning of live beef cattle, beef primal joints are small enough to be scanned. Hence, SCTS could be used to quantify beef carcass composition, and provide valuable information for breeding programmes including composition faster than by anatomical dissection. The objective of this study was to develop a CT image analysis procedure to assess fat, muscle and bone weights of beef carcasses and to evaluate its accuracy.
The UCLA two-channel IR camera has been used to perform crowded-field photometry in two distinct classes of extragalactic objects. DAOPHOT was used to reduce images of M 33 and provide JHK color-magnitude diagrams of over 1,700 stars. Galaxy photometry in crowded clusters, e.g. Abell 370, was obtained in JHK and analyzed using FOCAS. In both cases, extensive reductions were performed using synthetic aperture photometry for comparison. Methods and results are summarized.
The magnetic field geometry in the central regions of two dark clouds has been mapped by measuring the polarization at 2.2 μm of background stars and of stars embedded in the clouds. The observations were done with the Kyoto polarimeter on the Agematsu 1m IR telescope in December 1984 for Heiles Cloud 2 in the Taurus dark cloud complex, and on the UKIRT 3.8m in May and July 1985 for the ρ Ophiuchus dark cloud core. The main results are:
i)Most of the stars in both regions show polarization and their maxima are 2.7% in Heiles Cloud 2 and 7.6% in ρ Oph, respectively. There are similar positive relations between polarization degree and extinct ion Av's.
ii)The distribution of position angles for Heiles Cloud 2 shows a single mode at about 50° and that for ρ Oph shows a bimode, at about 50° and 150°.
iii)The magnetic fields, as delineated by the infrared polarization, appear perpendicular to the flattened elongations of the molecular clouds.
Extensive reflection nebulae have been discovered around GGD27 IRS and around W75N IRS by mapping the infrared polarization in the K band.
It was found that the infrared radiation from both objects is extended at λ = 2.2 μm, by using the Agematsu 1-m, the UH 2.2-m, and the UKIR 3.8-m telescopes. We have carried out polarization mapping with the Kyoto polarimeter on the UKIRT in August 1985.
Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) associated with Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) protein accumulation is an uncommon cause of FTD with a distinct syndrome of young age onset behavioral variant FTD, without a family history of FTD and caudate atrophy. We present a sporadic case of a 61-year-old patient with mixed features of both behavioral variant FTD with later semantic language dissolution associated with pathologically proven FUS. He was older than usual for FUS pathology, his course was rapidly progressive, and he had atypical language features. This case broadens the clinical spectrum caused by FUS-protein-related FTD.
Images of the central 36 arcseconds of the Galaxy in the Brackett gamma line of atomic hydrogen (2.17μm) at a spatial resolution of 0.6 arcsec and a velocity resolution of 110 km/sec were obtained using UKIRT. The velocity separation between adjacent frames is 55 km/sec; 17 different velocities channels were imaged. Several distinct kinematic components are evident within the clumpy distribution of the ionised gas. An image in the v=1-0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen (2.12μm) clearly resolves the structure of the “molecular ring.”
We present high spatial resolution infrared images of the planetary nebulae NGC 7027, M2-9, BD +30 3639, NGC 7099 and NGC 7662. These were taken through a selection of broad and narrow-band line and continuum filters (including a Fabry-Pérot interferometer) using the 2D infrared array “IRCAM” on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, UKIRT, in July 1987. Comparison is made with recently published high-resolution VLA radio maps (Basart and Daub 1987, Ap. J., 317, 412) and mid-IR Wyoming Infrared Telescope raster-scanning maps (Bentley et al.1984, Ap. J., 278, 665).
The outstanding feature of the last triennium was most certainly the abrupt generalisation of the use of array detectors, particularly CCDs (charge coupled devices). The latter pervade all subdivisions of instrumental astronomy. The gains achieved by their high quantum efficiency, their stability, their capability of delivering immediately recordable signals which can be processed by appropriate computational means, have been the cause of spectacular progress regarding the photometric precision of weak signal measurements.
This triennium has in general not been one of spectacular new developments in photometric of polarimetric techniques; rather, existing techniques have been improved and are being exploited by more observatories than before. For this reason, the previous report (31.113.097) should be consulted for a broad survey of the subject, while the present has the character of a progress report.
Infared polarimetric and photometric mapping observations at K(2.2 μm) and H(1.65 μm) have revealed an extended dust envelope around the late-type star IRC+10216. The observations were made on the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, in 1985 December and 1987 January and February. The polarization observations were made by emplying the Kyoto polarimeter (Sato et al. 1987). Great care was taken to check the contamination by stray light in the telescope and instruments as the source on peak was extremely bright (K~0 mag). From the observations of normal stars, we found that the polarized intensity (degree of polarization times the intensity) was a good measure of the envelope, free from contamination by stray light, although the intensity and the degree of polarization suffered from the contamination separately.
Infrared imaging of interacting galaxies is especially interesting because their optical appearance is often so chaotic due to extinction by dust and emission from star formation regions, that it is impossible to locate the nuclei or determine the true stellar distribution. However, at near-infrared wavelengths extinction is considerably reduced, and most of the flux from galaxies originates from red giant stars that comprise the dominant stellar component by mass. Thus near infrared images offer the opportunity to study directly components of galactic structure which are otherwise inaccessible. Such images may ultimately provide the framework in which to understand the activity taking place in many of the mergers with high IRAS luminosities.
We have made linear polarization measurements of several Be and shell stars across the Hα and Hβ lines, all of the stars exhibiting polarization in the continuum, the emphasis here being on measurements made of ζ Tau, 48 Per, φ Per, and γ Cas. Three types of results ensue: some stars show no significant change of polarization across the Balmer features (e.g., 48 Per, X Per); some stars show a reduced polarization across the features (e.g., γ Cas, ζ Tau) indicating the presence of intrinsic polarization; some stars show a change in the degree of polarization but with a marked rotation of the direction of vibration (e.g., φ Per, 48 Lib) which can be attributed to a combination of non-aligned intrinsic (circumstellar) and interstellar polarizations. Interpretations of these results are discussed, and we demonstrate the potential power of line profile polarimetry/photometry as an important new method for separating intrinsic and interstellar polarization effects, thus enabling polarization observations to be used as a constraint on models of Be stars.
It is well established that pregnant women are at an increased risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection when compared to non-pregnant individuals and limited epidemiological data suggest Plasmodium vivax risk also increases with pregnancy. The risk of P. falciparum declines with successive pregnancies due to the acquisition of immunity to pregnancy-specific P. falciparum variants. However, despite similar declines in P. vivax risk with successive pregnancies, there is a paucity of evidence P. vivax-specific immunity. Cross-species immunity, as well as immunological and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy may influence the susceptibility to both P. vivax and P. falciparum. The period following delivery, the postpartum period, is relatively understudied and available epidemiological data suggests that it may also be a period of increased risk of infection to Plasmodium spp. Here we review the literature and directly compare and contrast the epidemiology, clinical pathogenesis and immunological features of P. vivax and P. falciparum in pregnancy, with a particular focus on studies performed in areas co-endemic for both species. Furthermore, we review the intriguing epidemiology literature of both P. falciparum and P. vivax postpartum and relate observations to the growing literature pertaining to malaria immunology in the postpartum period.
A synthesis of the upper Moscovian sedimentological and palaeontological record of terrestrial habitats across the Variscan foreland and adjacent intramontane basins (an area which is referred to here as Variscan Euramerica) suggests a contraction and progressive westward shift of the coal swamps. These changes can be correlated with pulses of tectonic activity (tectonic phases) resulting from the northwards migration of the Variscan Front. This tectonic activity caused disruption to the landscapes and drainage patterns where the coal swamps were growing, which became less suitable to growth of the dominant plants of the swamps, the arborescent lycopsids. They were progressively replaced by vegetation dominated by marattialean ferns, which through a combination of slower growth and larger canopies resulted in less evapo-transpiration. This in turn caused localised reductions in rainfall, which further affected the ability of the lycopsids to dominate the swamp vegetation. These changes were initially localised and where the coal swamps were able to survive the lycopsids and pteridosperms show little change in either species diversity or biogeography, indicating that at this time there was minimal regional-scale climate change taking place. By Asturian times, however, the process had accelerated and the swamps in Variscan Euramerica became progressively replaced by predominantly conifer and cordaite vegetation that favoured much drier substrates. Except in localised pockets in intramontane basins of the Variscan Mountains, the last development of coal swamps in Variscan Euramerica was of early Cantabrian age. Further west, lycopsid-dominated coal swamps persisted for a little longer. The last remnants of the lycopsid-dominated coal swamps in the Illinois Basin disappeared probably by middle-late Cantabrian times, as the cycle of contracting wetlands and regional reductions in rainfall generated its own momentum, and no longer needed the impetus of tectonic instability. This tectonically-driven decline in the Euramerican coal swamps was probably responsible for an annual increase in atmospheric CO2 of c. 0.37 ppm, and may have been implicated in the marked increase in global temperatures near the Moscovian – Kasimovian boundary, and the onset of the Late Pennsylvanian interglacial.
The formal commissioning of the IRWG occurred at the 1991 Buenos Aires General Assembly, following a Joint Commission meeting at the IAU GA in Baltimore in 1988 that identified the problems with ground-based infrared photometry. The meeting justification, papers, and conclusions, can be found in Milone (1989). In summary, the challenges involved how to explain the failure to achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated, although bearing the same “JHKLMNQ” designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the spectral windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
We report on ESR and electric conductivities of BBB and BBL ladder polymers with emphasis on the former. Both the ESR and the electrical conductivities are strongly anisotropic suggesting that the polymer backbones are plannar. The ESR data implies the existence of two different types of spin species. The hyperfine spectrum of one of these species is analyzed in terms of a Spin Hamiltonian and anisotropic transferred hyperfine interaction with the 14N nuclei (I = 1). We found that “annealing” the BBB and BBL films to high temperatures, To, increase the spin susceptibility for To ≤ 850K (BBB). However annealing to To ≥ 900K results in a dramatic reduction in the spin susceptibility and dramatic incise in the conductivity. The room temperature in-plane conductivity of annealed samples at To ≥ 900K exceeds σ = 1 Ω−1 cm−1. This high intrinsic conductivity is probably associated with the formation of cross-linked condensed aromatic structure. The 'phase transition” temperature to this structure is higher by 50K for BBB compared to BBL. The conductivity versus temperature of annealed samples (700K ≤ To) can be described by the onisotropic version of Mott's law for variable range hopping. We demonstrate that the anisotropic conductivity is due to the anisotropic localization lengths (ξ∥ and ξ⊥) of the wave function of the localized states.