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Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.
To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.
The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.
In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β=0.12, P = 2.7 × 10−4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10−7) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10−8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO.
This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of radiographer led verification of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images for patients with solitary lung tumours treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment (SBRT).
Material and methods
CBCT setup images of 20 patients from the first fraction of each patient were retrospectively registered by therapeutic radiographers. The displacements recorded were compared with the clinical oncologist’s original online match. The time taken by radiographers to verify the CBCT images was also recorded.
Overall agreement for all radiographers when compared with the clinical oncologist match was 91%. Interobserver variations between radiographers were X plane 0·87 (0·76–0·94); Y plane 0·74 (0·51–0·88); and Z plane 0·88 (0·78–0·95) intraclass correlation coefficient and 95% confidence interval. The average time taken for verification was 128 seconds.
Therapeutic radiographers are able to verify CBCT images for thorax SBRT with results comparable to the ‘gold standard’ clinical oncologists’ match, however additional training will be provided for online verification. The time taken was within acceptable limits.
The formation of thin copper films by H-atom reaction with Cu(FOD)2 and Cu(HFA)2 has been demonstrated at near room temperature. Oxygen atoms have now also been reacted with these β-diketonate copper complexes, producing films of copper oxide which can be readily reduced by subsequent treatment with H-atoms. The thin copper films produced are conductive and highly adherent. The oxygen atom reaction with the copper complex produces a visible chemiluminescent glow, yielding information on the nature of the reaction process.
This paper describes power requirements for micro air vehicles, flying in the Reynolds number regime of -lO*. Three flight modes have been researched: fixed wing, rotary wing and flapping wing. For each mode, the literature in the public domain has been reviewed to obtain appropriate lift and drag coefficient data at these low Reynolds numbers. Energy and power requirements for the three flight modes have been calculated and an optimisation procedure has been utilised to evaluate the most efficient flight mode and configuration for a variety of specified missions. The effect of wind-speed on the optimal solution has been examined. It has been discovered that when there is no hover requirement, fixed wing flight is always most energy efficient for the micro air vehicle. However, if there is a hover requirement, the suitability of flapping or rotary wing flight is dependent on the mission profile and ambient windspeed.
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